A REVIEW ON MANAGEMENT, ITS ELEMENTS, AND MANAGEMENT PROCESS

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General Description of Management

Management is a process consisting of some stages in order to achieve certain goals. The stages of planning, organizing, managing and leading, controlling are of vital importance in the management process, where efficiency and effectiveness should always be prioritized. Regardless of its characteristics (small, large / profit, non profit / production, finance / first level, top-level), the main purpose of management that should be present in every organization is to reach the goals of the organization by using the necessary tools. The efficient and effective use of resources and the realization of the mentioned processes make it suitable for management and organization purposes. In short, it should be said that it is an act of serving a purpose in cooperation, not an individual, for the management.

Key Components of Management

First, other employees and people must be present for management. Because without them, management has no meaning. Cooperation is also another crucial component of management. People should cooperate with each other for management. But specific goals are an essential part of collaboration. In other words, cooperation should be established within the framework of certain goals. In summary, cooperation should be directed towards specific goals. Finally, effectiveness and efficiency are another important element of management. Because there is no real existence of management without being effective and efficient.

Management Is Actually An Art

When we look at the definition of art, it can be seen how similar it is with the management. There are several reasons for this. First of all, the manager’s ability to manage people and the organization is one of the important determinants of the emergence of this art. Because behind it is the blending of knowledge and skill and the manager reflects this. The use of theoretical knowledge is the first determinant in defining management as art. Besides, it is an art for managers to display all their skills in practice. And finally, managers’ personal creativity and personalization of information also help to define management as art.

Two Critical Concepts for Management: Effectiveness and Efficiency

Efficiency is an expression of how well and efficiently our resources are used to achieve a specific goal organizationally. Effectiveness measures the appropriateness of the goals pursued by any organization. It is also a measure of the degree to which these goals are achieved. Here, it should be given an example of efficiency and effectiveness. Let’s consider a telecommunications company employee. The aim of this employee is to call for a hundred people daily. When he reaches this limit, we can consider this employee is effective. But how efficient was it? How many of the people they were calling for accepted the campaign proposal they made? Efficiency arises right here.

The Management Process Is Among The Resources That Help Define Management

The management process consists of some major stages. The code we call “POSDCoRB” as the short version represents these management process stages. The management process passes through the processes of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling in the most general terms.

In the planning phase, goals are defined, a strategy is created and plans are developed to coordinate activities. The tasks to be performed during the organization phase and who will do these tasks are determined. Also, it is determined how to group the tasks. In the leading phase, there are requirements such as motivating employees and establishing good relationships with them, directing their activities, resolving conflicts that arise, discovering and using existing potentials. In the control phase, which is the last step in the management process, operations such as monitoring performance and comparison with targets, and eliminating emerging problems are performed.

Functions of Management

In fact, the subject of management functions is related to the previous title. Let’s take a deeper look at the functions of the management that I tried to explain in that subject.

The primary function of management is planning. We can say that planning is a decision-making process. It is a decision-making process designed and developed for the organization to achieve its goals. The second function is organization. This function is the process of grouping activities to achieve the goals, determining the roles of individuals and ensuring the coordination of all these. The third function, the leading function, is the process of directing individuals and departments in line with the same goals. Another management function is controlling. It measures whether the outputs are suitable for the determined goals and plans. The best way to monitor performance is to pay attention to the control phase. In short, the control phase is the task of getting rid of the obstacles in the wheel that prevent the clock from working. Apart from this, functions such as staffing, directing, reporting, budgeting can also be counted, but it should not be forgotten that some of these have the same meaning with the 4 basic functions of management.

Managerial Skills Accelerate the Operability of the Management Process

Management skills are crucial to the smooth running of management. In this sense, we can gather general management skills under three headings named conceptual, interpersonal, and technical skills. Conceptual skill is the manager’s mental ability to coordinate all relevant areas and activities of the organization. The interpersonal skill is the manager’s ability to work with individual and genius groups, to understand them, to guide them and to motivate them. In addition, this skill requires the manager to know how to manage interpersonal relationships. The manager should reveal this skill with appropriate tactics. Technical skill is the skill that is presumed to exist in the manager. So I mean that the manager should already have this above all else. Technical skill; it requires knowing the techniques and tools of the manager’s field of expertise. The manager should have a good command of the knowledge and technique of this particular area.

In terms of vertical classification, managers can be examined under 3 main headings: First level managers, middle managers, and top managers. Let me explain in more detail. The task of first-level managers is to manage and supervise employees in their departments. So, it can be said that they are responsible for daily management and audit activities. Middle-level managers are managers who are between top-level managers and first-level managers. They are responsible to their superiors for what their subordinates do. Top/senior managers are managers who make decisions to determine the fate of the organization. their decisions cover the entire organization in terms of bindingness.

 

Enes KOŞAR

 

 

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Istanbul Medeniyet Univ. Political Sciences Balkan Studies httpnettd[at]gmail.com

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