General Introduction

Gained independence in 1947, India, the Far East is one of Asia’s most important countries. Population power is very high. The world’s second most populous country is India. In the world’s seventh largest country in terms of land area. India contains many different ethnic and religious groups. Hindus are the first major group in the country. In second place comes the Muslims. The Sikhs are another social group. After Indonesia’s Muslim population is in India. India is the world’s largest democracy. Election results lasts for months. Radical and it has a long history. Past civilizations have made to present more than one host. Indian civilization is a civilization that protects the authenticity of the world. Is a country where tradition and modernity intertwined. Therefore, it can say India is a magical country.

History of India

Cemil Meriç great philosopher: ” I hope Indian diagnosis. Hikmet Bayur although we do not know the history of three large volumes. ” He says. We work extends to less than India, though very old term. many important battles in Indian history was made. Throughout history, India has been the focus of all attention. Many states have struggled to dominate India. It is possible to see traces of the Greeks even in the history of India. Alexander the Great of Macedonia is extended to the borders of India with the army. But the soldiers were forced to retreat on longer want to go back. B.C. Greek progress made in the 327 years war has been stopped Hydaspes in India. B.C. two great religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism was born in 261 years in this country. In the next century founded the Hindu kingdoms, the north lost its last event, the rise of Buddhism. A.D. In 630 began the first Islamic activities in Sindh and Gujarat state has enabled the spread of this religion. MS. Rajasthan made with 738 year war in Islam is extended to eastern India. In 1398, in Delhi to Timur’s progress towards Delhi Sultanate it was established many different. Timur region until the year 1500 holds, then the defeated army in India, Babur Shah, the management has started Mughals period. The period of the Mughal rulers in India experienced a full heyday and this vast country could be kept under control completely. A powerful example of Babur management in India could only be approached from Ashoka and British periods. Mughals, not only occupants at gunpoint governing the country; particular emphasis on culture and architecture have created great works in India. Taj Mahal is one of the world’s most beautiful monument is the work of Shah Jahan. Art and literature, Mughals period is very advanced. It also established the justice system was far ahead than the same period in Europe. It is the most important ruler of the Mughals;

  •   Babur Shah (1527 – 1530)
  •   Humayun Shah (1530 – 1556)
  •   Akbar Shah (1556 – 1605)
  •    Cihangir Shah (1605 – 1627)
  •    Shah Jahan (1627 – 1658)
  •    Aurangzeb (1658 – 1707)

In 1707 after the death of Aurangzeb Mughal Empire it was quickly began to unravel. II. Bahadir Shah’s exile in 1858 British Empire be end of the Mughal Empire, giving India has been included in the British Empire.

The first European powers occupying India are actually Portuguese. The Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope has seized the Indian trade. first the British colonial government in India has begun to establish a trade center in 1612. Queen Elizabeth she in 1600 in a London trading company, trade relations between England and India had given the monopoly. The British continued their relationship with India through 250 years of the British East India Company. regular of the British army had disciplined and skilled political advisors. ‘Divide and rule’ policy has been applied in various regional principalities fully into its own satellite and have managed to keep the orientation as long as they want. India, a country that had just won money for the British.

In 1915, Gandhi returned from South Africa, the independence movement gradually spread across the world are interested in from the beginning. In 1919 massacre opening to shoot unarmed people gathered in Amritsar on the British began the resistance movement. It’s called “great soul” Mahatma Gandhi the meaning has applied passive resistance against British rule. Gandhi’s “create unity without the use of violence,” thanks to the action carried out on the basis of the struggle for independence in 1947 has resulted in success. Muslims in India, but also it will be a Hindu state the new state to be established realized they wanted to leave. Thus division problems have emerged. Nehru was the first prime minister after India’s independence. Congress Party is the party conducting the struggle for independence. The Congress party, has refused to recognize the Muslim unity and has not accepted the proposal to set up their independent state of Pakistan. Gandhi is also opposed to the division of taking the danger of a civil war. India even after removing from within a Muslim country like Pakistan is still hosting the second largest Muslim population in the world. There have been clashes between Hindus and Muslims during the struggle for independence. Gandhi, head of India’s independence movement were actors. But after indigestible division and into the massacres that killed a Hindu January 30, 1948 Mahatma Gandhi.

Politics in India

India, gained independence after the dictatorship like other third world countries, has been dragged into military rule or foreign occupation. Self-powered, it has provided an important example of democracy to develop their own institutions. In this regard, management is notable as the largest democracy in the world. Before the agricultural economies of India, today entered into between industry moves by industrialized countries in the world. Like many former British colony, India has adopted a parliamentary democracy. Kinder Executive Chairman and has the Prime Minister. President Pranab Mukherjee is also available now. The prime minister is Narendra Modi. President sees a typical presidential function in a parliamentary democracy. The powers of the president is ceremonial. prime task is to form the government.

In state affairs and legal Britain, India with a flexible structure, an advanced system of government and civil polity it has left. excessive bureaucracy in India is a commitment inherited from the British. The government is the majority in the Lok Sabha parliamentary legitimacy. government with a majority in parliament, is safe in terms of legitimacy. The legislature has two stages. First is the Lok Sabha. 543 is a member. It is directly elected by the people. representatives of social groups within the Assembly approved by the president. They worked for 5 years. A simple majority in parliament is essential. The upper house is Rajhi Sabha. The number of members is 245. This assembly is similar to the US Senate. The legislative process is the British type. Both the parliament a bill to become law with the approval of the president.

The judicial system in India is a secular nature. Indian constitution has been in force since 1950. Constitutional equality, freedom and individual rights gets under protection. Federative Constitutional Court has administrative system in the country resolves disputes between the federal states.

Bureaucracy is very large and advanced network structure. Regional and local service has a very complex system. The biggest Indian administrative bureaucracy with elements of Indian Police Service is Service.

Political Parties

Political parties in India, “National Party” and “States Parties” is divided into two groups. The National Party, which participated in the elections in every electoral district in the country, the State Parties is the local party entering the election in one or two states.

It is forbidden to change the parliamentary party. The two largest political parties in the country; Gandhi-Nehru tradition followed by the center-left Indian National Congress (Congress Party) and the Hindu nationalist tradition of sitting on the right is the Indian People’s Party-BJP.

Congress Party, the country’s “founding fathers” of Gandhi and Nehru shaped as seen in the control of the family and the party leadership is shared between the two families. “Reflects the vision of a secular world and defending the contemporary social democratic values of the Congress Party of India, the caste system prevailing social / political effectiveness is trying to minimize. Hindu identity (by moving faith) out of politics, trying to get into all ethnic and religious groups living in the country a ‘state party’ is in view.

In the last elections, winning spice Janata Party; Right integrated into the Hindu nationalist-conservative is drawing attention as a party. Although relatively new to the Congress Party, it has followed the course of the years in the slow but steady growth. a party is a very serious view has been able to provide support, especially from rural areas. However, BJP’s identity-based policies, claims in later years will lead to a wave of social unrest in India, which also has strong criticism.

Communist parties collect votes is usually from the lower classes. However, the cut-educated can receive votes. In general, the nationalist Congress Party said that his party systems formed between the BJP.


Kashmir Issue

Pakistan, due to the fact that the vast majority of the Muslim people of Kashmir argues that this place should belong to him. The geographical location of India wants reunification with their land and claiming here. This is the first time the two countries fought in 1948 for many reasons. United Nations cease-fire has been achieved between the intrusion and the condition that the parties plebiscite in Kashmir. This conflict in Pakistan, most of the takeover has added a small portion of Kashmir to India. India has to hold the plebiscite in Kashmir territory in the hands of so far despite the UN resolutions.

Kashmir issue has affected the two states’ foreign policies. Since its establishment following the disconnection policy of India, it has received the support of the USSR converge. In Pakistan, following a pro-Western policy since 1954 has begun to receive military aid from the United States. In 1955, Pakistan Baghdad Pact by the fact that members of the USSR, took the side of India in all disputes between the two states. Conflict began in 1963 between Muslims and Hindus in Kashmir has been transformed since the end of the war in August 1965. The UN Security Council has stopped the war with the call. China’s tough stance against India in getting the parties to agree to a cease-fire has played a major role. Chinese pressure on India artırınca US who want to maintain the balance in the Far East, is located next to India. Both countries have nuclear power raises tensions in Asia.

10 January 1966 in the USSR through India and Pakistan signed the Taskent Declaration on the withdrawal of the previous 1965 border war and agreed to resolve their disputes through peaceful means. But the Kashmir problem continues today as a problem can not be resolved in Pakistan-India relations.


   India Social Structure

Religious diversity and political conflicts in the foreground. Hindu are divided into several groups themselves. Jammu and Kashmir is a residential area with a Muslim majority. Kashmir is the number one issue between Pakistan and India. Punjab has a Sikh majority region. Christian has a majority in a few small areas. Hindu nationalism is high. Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Buddhism and local tribal religions are available. Religious conflicts are experienced occasionally. Kast holds an important place in Indian society. The caste system affects politics directly. The present caste system is as follows:

  •     Brahmins are – priests
  •     Kshatriyas – managers and fighters
  •     Vaisyas – business class
  •     Sudra are – service groups

India is a structure of class society. Superstitions are widespread. Marriages in India, social networks, food taboos and rituals can be based on superstition. Choosing a career and social life depends on caste. This is the reason to go on rebelling against the caste system.


The first problem is poverty and underdevelopment in India. However, optimism prevails in spite of everything. Countries are being developed in areas such as information technology and pharmaceutical industries. It is trying to adapt to the global market economy. There is also available a free economy, but a mixed economy. It is a country with a complex ethnic structure. This situation raises the threat of Balkanization. We are striving for a sustainable economy. India-Pakistan rivalry is a major source of threat. Both countries also have nuclear weapons. It is feared that the reasons there’s a nuclear war. The negotiation process continues constantly. Kashmir is a problem in the disputed region. It is a rising power in Asia. India is one of the countries of importance in US Asia policy. Income inequality is a major problem. Centralization is very high despite a federal structure. This situation creates discomfort. Infrastructure problems continue. Mass literacy rate is low. However, there is progress in training despite a few elite institutions. These; India is the Indian Institutes of Technology Management Institute.

As a result, those in South Asia, India is a growing and developing countries, although many problems. Social structure, religious and ethnic composition has embraced democracy, albeit complex. Finally, India, alternating between modernity and tradition, and later as the way to becoming a world power is a magical country.



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GALİP Mübarek, Hindistan’da Türkler, Berikan Yayınları, I. Edition, İstanbul 2013

KULKE Hermann, ROTHERMUN Dietmar, Hindistan Tarihi, İmge Yayınları, I. Edition, İstanbul 2001

MERİÇ Cemil, Bir Dünyanın Eşiğinde, İletişim Yayınları, XVI. Edition, İstanbul 2015

Politics of India,


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