A REVIEW: DEMOCRATIZATION IN SPAIN

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Guernica, 1937 by Pablo Picasso

Guernica, 1937 by Pablo Picasso

ABSTRACT:  In 20th century, many European countries passed democratic regime. Also Spain was the attractive example for transition to democracy. Even though they introduced to governing with the republic in 30’s, after they faced lots of reverse events which against to development of democracy. Fragmented society, different political tendencies, repressive military wings leads to these chaotic order. Therefore, after the Second Republic, Spain faced Civil War in 1936. After three years, General Francisco Franco and his military supporters defeat their opposites and established an authoritarian regime in 1939. His dictatorship resumed till the death of Franco in 1975. When we scrutinized in the political history of Spain, we see the many variations of authoritarian regime, In this article, we discuss the changing in thoughts and applications of authoritarian regime, such as changing on discources of the regime, functions of Technocrats, fiscal orientations which deal with international organizations, restrictions on public, role of media, changing manner of religious groups, ideologies etc.

We questioned “How Spain democratize?”on this article and strived for the understand the basic reasons. In this work, we didn’t focus to all historical process completely. Also we mentioned the special milestones of history of Spain and discussed on defined themes. As a conclusion, this work analyzed with the thoughts of Linz and Huntington. Especially, “Third Wave of Democratization” thesis and classification about transition assessed in detail. At the end of the work, transition to democracy in Spain combined with the explanations in literature.

Key Words: Spain, democratization, civil war, technocrats, authoritarianism.

ÖZ: 20. Yüzyılda birçok Avrupa ülkesi demokratik rejime geçmiştir. İspanya, bu demokrasiye geçiş sürecinde verilebilecek en dikkat çekici örnek ülkelerdendir. İspanya, 1930’lu yıllarda cumhuriyet yönetimine geçiş yapmış olsa da, sonrasında demokrasiyi olumsuz olarak etkileyecek birçok olayla karşılaşmıştır. Parçalı toplum, farklı siyasi eğilimler, baskıcı askeri gruplar kaotik bir ortama neden olmuştur. Bundan dolayı, 2. Cumhuriyet’ten sonra İspanya 1936 yılında İç Savaş’a şahit oldu. Savaşından başlamasından üç yıl sonra, General Fransisco Franco ve onun askeri alandaki destekçileri, muhalifleri yendiler ve 1939 yılında iktidarı ele geçirerek otoriter bir rejim kurdular. Diktatörlüğü 1975’te Franco’nun ölümüne kadar devam etti. İspanya’nın siyasi tarihini incelediğimizde, otoriter rejimin birçok çeşidini görmekteyiz. Bu makalede, otoriter rejimin düşünce ve uygulamalarındaki değişimleri tartışılmıştır. Rejimin söylemleri, teknokratların işlevleri, uluslararası örgütlerle ilişkili mali yönelimler, kamuoyu kısıtlamaları, medyanın rolü, dini grupların değişen tutumları, ideolojiler vb.

Makalede “İspanya nasıl demokratikleşti?” sorusuna odaklanılmış ve sürecin temel nedenler, sorgulanmıştır. Bu çalışmada, tarihsel süreçlerin  tamamına odaklanılmamıştır. Ayrıca İspanya tarihinin özel dönüm noktalarından bahsedilmiş ve belirli temalar üzerinde durulmuştur. Sonuç olarak, bu çalışma Linz ve Huntington’un düşünceleriyle analiz edilmiştir. Özellikle “Üçüncü Demokratikleşme Dalgası” tezi ve geçişe ilişkin sınıflandırma detaylı bir şekilde değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuç bölümünde İspanya’nın demokrasiye geçişi, literatürdeki açıklamalarla ilişkilendirilerek yorumlanmıştır.

THIRD WAVE OF DEMOCRATIZATION

The main question is that how countries became democracies?

Regimes of the countries were changed from authoritarian to democracy with several reasons. With the late 1970’s, lots of Latin American countries collapsed authoritarian regimes and passed democratic regimes. Asian countries, South Korea, Phillippines, Pakistan, Thailand, India and so on. They all undertaken transitions to democracy. When we search the literature, we can see many similarities, differences of countries which passed democratic regimes. When we asked how democratization begin, and why countries democratize; we investigates the literature especially on democratization, sources of democracy etc. Huntington, in his work, “How Countries Democratize?” explain the main factors of the democratization process of countries. In his monument, he explain these process with the progression an reggression of the level of democracy. Besides, Huntington analyze the relation between democracy and cultural values. He believe that culture, religion, values on spectecular civilizations have effects for apropriateness of democracy.

There are three waves for democratization in the world. In other respects, these have reverse waves.

The first wave began in 1820’s. In United States, wide men population had a right to vote. This progress leads to many democratic development in its time. With the first wave od democracy, there were 29 democracies in the world. But this wave followed by the first reverse wave. In 1922, Mussolini came to the power in Italy. This power movement, spreaded to other Euroean countries such as Fascism in Germany with SS Leader Adolf Hitler, Yugoslavia with General Tito etc. Fascist political movements were spreaded an number of democratic countries decreased to 12.

The second wave started after 2nd World War. This wave triggered democratic transitions. In 1962, number of democratic countries reached its zenith with 36 democracies. Then, with the second reverse wave, 30 democracies remained in between 1960-1975.

The third wave occured between 1974-1990. In this period, Portugal, Spain, Greece passed democracy. Military governments lost their legitimacy and popularity. Economic downturn happened in 1970’s with the enormous influence of the Oil Crisis. Economic hardship created opposition to authoritarian leaders. We can see determinative social changes in the same transitional period. Industrialization, education, well-educated population, existence of new larger entrepreneur middle class, revival of civil society and so on.

International factors

European Union institutions, international organizations are the international factors of democratization process. The examples of transition to democracy, Portugal, Spain, Greece affected from European Union and its countries. At the towards to end of the Soviet Union, several countries passed democracy from the socialist regimes. Collapse of the Soviet Russia, abolished the spreaded Soviet socialist culture and countries choosed the way of democratic alternatives. Regions turned to the liberal approach with the Perestroika and liked movements.

According to Huntington, United States President Carter’s policy had a supportive effect to democratization. As an one another factor is Catholic religious culture. According to him, when we look into the countries which are democratized, generally these have Catholic religious culture. Huntington generalized this situation as democracy appropriate to the Catholic countries and the others not compatible to democracy. Latin America, Spain, Portugal, Hungary, Poland are the some of the Catholic countries. All had turns democracy. Before, Vatican participated to authoritarian regimes. But after second Vatican Council, they supported to democracy. According tho Huntington’s thesis, two-thirds of the democratized countries have Catholic identity.[1]

The other factors for transition to democratic order or vice versa, “Snowballing effect”. One movement in defined country, can spread the other countries. This interaction get bigger as like snowball and affect the other countries. This event realize both democratic transition, non democratic transition.

These factors can create reverse wave:

Weakness of democratic values, losing the belief to democracy, breakdown of law and order, intervention by non-democratic foreign power such as Russia and China, collapse of democratic systems in other countries (snowballing effect), severe economic drawbacks, social/political polarization.

Preconditions that favor development of democracy:

Preconditions for creating of democratic regimes can be grouped into four categories[2]:

Economic wealth, social structure, external environment, cultural context.

Zone of transition. Wealth is important, but after, for filling the gap, as indicating instruments political elites, situations of actors have determinative role for democratization.

Relatively autonomous groups, institutions which are independent from the state, business groups, NGOs etc. They all check the state power and help fort he creating democratic order. With this situation, market-oriented economy is adopted.

International factors have determining factor on democratization. Democratic countries and their relations, organizations after the collapse of the Soviet Union, effects of United States with its democratic tenets are can given as an example to the international factors for democratization.

Huntington thoughts about cultural context, Confucianism, Islam are not compatible with democracy. According to him, when we investigate the countries and their religions and cultures, Islamic countries and structure of Eastern societies sort ill with democracy. Huntington, in his work, afeected from the ideas of Sidney Verba. According to Verba, political culture is sourced from the culture of a society with its values, beliefs and symbols. These all have functions on leading of the government affairs.[3]

Political Processes of Democratization

There are three model for the explanation of the transition to democracy. These are lineer, cyclical and dialectical model.

According to Huntington’s declaration, lineer model which is belonged to Dankwart A. Rustow, foresee the development of the democratic level within a linear progression. This linear model is seen in the European countries in first wave of democratization. And some Latin American countries passed democracy with the light of the linear model. As stated in the article, Argentina in 1930 and Chile in 1973 given as an example for transition to democracy in Latin America. In cyclical model, normally, elites accept the legitimacy of the democratic regime. Elections are held regularly. But in some elections, parties which supperted with military junta, other repressive group can be selected. And also military coups can be occured from these groups. In that periods, democratic level decreased. Countries that have more stable authoritarian regime pass into democracy rather than oscillated between despotism and democracy. In dialectical model, as different from the other two models, middle class raised their contestation before the authoritarian regimes. With this way, according to this model, authoritarian regimes collapse and transition to democracy goes on. Greece, Spain, Italy, Germany can be given as an example to this model. [4]

If process continue with below, democratization is provided:

  • Define national identity
  • Develop political institution effectively
  • Expand political participation carefully
  • Agreement, consensus, compromise, negotiation with other political actors (even though sometimes it’s for interest of actors)

 

Transition Processes

  • Reforma – Transformation
  • Ruptura – Replacement
  • Ruptforma – Transplacement

Government Actors:                                                Opposition Actors:

*Hardliners \ standpatters                                        *Moderate

*Reformers                                                                  *Extremists \ Radicals

Huntington wrote the introduction of the relevant topic as:“The third wave transitions were complex political processes involving a variety of groups struggling for power and for and against democracy and other goals.”[5]

In these processes, moderate group has liberal identity, and extremist groups are more revolutionist.

For transition to democracy, according to explanation of reforma or transformantion; among government actors, reformers must be stronger than hardliners. In opposition actors, moderates must more stronger than the radicals. Besides, for make an agreement, government actors must be stronger than opposition actors. Democratization in Spain and Brazil can be given as an example for this type of democratization process.

Explanation of ruptura or replacement; among government actors, reformers must be strongers than hardliners. Also in opposition actors, again moderates must be repressive than the extremists. But, as different from the reforma, for compromise, oppositions must be stronger than the government. Phillippines and Romania were the good example for this explanation.

According to last explanation, ruptforma or transplacement, sides both government and opposition, accept that no sides superior to each other, and there are equal position between them. After that they aware that the balance of power. Poland, Uruguay, Czech Republic are shown as a good example for the situation of consensus.

As we saw that these three different type of processes, Huntington advocates the consensus way on transition to democracy rather than conflictual way. In third wave, all democratized countries applied agreement within itself and other countries.

 

We can classified the history of the Spain as below:

Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)

Francoist Period (1939-1975)

After War Period (1939-1954)

End of Autocracy (1954-1959)

Technocrats’ Period (1960-1975)

Economic Development (1961-1963)

 

Features of Franco’s Regime:

  • Catholic
  • Anti communism
  • No parliamentary democracy
  • Absense of constitution
  • Absence of political parties
  • Intervention to political fragmentation
  • Unification of power
  • Prohibition to collective activity
  • Absolute control on media with censure
  • Superiority of army forces
  • No class distinction

 

With the starting of the 1930’s, the monarchy accepted as an old political trend. After King Alfonso XIII went into exile, new provisional government declared the start of The Second Republic of Spain. Parliamentary elections were held in a short time and the constitution of the new republic was approved in the Cortes[6] by the end of 1931.[7]

Manuel Azana became Prime Minister of Spain from 1931 to 1933. Azana had secular policy. And also their perspective was on socialism. After that, he faced revolution of King’s participants. In 1936, Popular Front (Leftists) made Land Reform and general amnesty. Therefore, Azana became President with the help of these participants.

In 1931, Spain passed fully democratic regime. But it was extremely unstable, and collapsed in a bloody Civil War in 1936. And Spain faced nearly four decades (between 1936-1975) of authoritarian rule followed. In 1939, with the victory of the Fransisco Franco and his participants, Francoist period was started.

 

DICTATORSHIP OF FRANCO (1939 – 1975)

In After War Period (1939 – 1954), we can found the more powerful authoritarian type of ruling of Fransisco Franco. After Civil War, the applications of dictatotorship, repressive ruling of the society was observable. Unification of power, desire for authonomy and centralized governning, intervention to political fragmentation, spreaded military institutions, absense of democratic values are seen in this period as the high level. With the effect of the global social and political tendencies, transformation occured in Spain gradually. In technocrat period, which we called as Opus Dei technocrats, integration to global economic and social relations with the organizations. The level of the dictatorship, repressive applications were diminished in time. This gradual transition was inevitable. Towards to late Franco period, social upheavals were observable. Social structure of the Spain changed with the impression from the other democratic European countries such as France and Italy.[8] This finding show us to importance of the international factors such as democratized countries, international organizations etc.

 

POST FRANCO PERIOD

The transition to democracy of Spain was complex. Because of its ambiguity, it analyzed in various from different writers. Some of them are see the transition period and policies of head actors as dubious or symbolic.

Franco was died on November 20, 1975 after a long time disease.[9]

Franco didn’t solve the monarcial problem before the devolution of authority. After his death, he chose Juan Carlos, who is Don Juan’s son, as Prince of Spain. Firstly, Juan Carlos swore loyalty personally to Franco and his principles, Movement. The Movement is also known as Movimiento which the docrine of the sole legal political party under Franco.[10]

Under the leadership of Carlos and Suarez, transition to democracy was realised. Before Adolfo Suarez, Arias Navarro reappointed as prime minister from the Juan Carlos. This action leads to dissatisfaction. Strikes, street demonstrations, calling for the amnesty for political prisoner, increased terror campaigns can be given as an example for the discontentedness. In July1976, Arias was forced to resign and Adolfo Suarez became the head a new cabinet. He changed the suspicious and dubious transition strategies of the Navarro. And he made relations with the thought of ruptura-pactada (negotiated break) with government actors and the opposition. Laura Desfor Edles questioned to Post-Franco period with the thought of “militant pacifism”.[11] She interrogates to mentioned period with the think of continued effects of the long-term authoritarian period.

When we discuss the international effect to transition to democracy of Post Franco Spain, we should consider to non-interventionalist United States foreign policy. United States, with the diplomatic power, strived fort o gain penetration on the other countries which countries faced to gained from the Soviet Union. Throughout the Cold War, and also till the collapse of the Soviet Union, United Statesaimed to spread its liberal ideology to several countries. Washington continued to made relations with Spain government in that time. After Franco’s death, first democratic election held in 1977 in Spain. Besides, Carlos’ and Suarez’s more democratic and liberal policies show us the Post Franco Spain was affected from the United States and its delivered ideologies.[12]

 

SPANISH SOCIETY AFTER FRANCO

With the transition to democracy, some parameters of Spanish society changed. End of the autocracy, partial efficial effect of the Opus Dei technıcrats, free trade economy, stabilization plans, progressive effects of the World Bank (WB) and International Money Fund(IMF),open economy, reforms of Juan Carlos and Adolfo Suarez, more secure social and political order factors were changed the welfare level of Spanish society. According to some defined indicators of welfare as stated in one research, we can analyze the changed welfare level of society. These are population, life expectancy in old ages, fertility rate, infant mortality,economic growth rate,social protection expenditure, public expenditure, social contributions, employement rate etc. can certainly make an inference that even though some indicators show fluctuate values on the boards, generally werfare conditions were get better after 60’s.[13]

 

CONSTITUTIONAL PROGRESS ON THE GRADUAL DEMOCRATIZATION OF SPAIN

Spain accepted a constitution with popular vote on 6 December, 1978. This constitutional process was the important for the transition to democracy. Even all things seemed like under the control, on 23 February- 1981, Spain faced failed military coup attempt which supported from seperatist terrorism. On the way of democratization, King Juan Carlos, Prime Minister Adolfo Suarez and the main opposition party leader Felipe Gonzalez and other political actors collaborated and defeated the undemocratic military coup attempt. This shows the protective and cohesive aims under the same constitution of the country. Also, these attemps for constitutionalization accepted as a good example of well-intentioned use of an existing legal framework is the Spanish Law for Political Reform introduced by the Suarez’s government in Spain.[14]

Carlos had an idea to create monarchy which based on democratic parliamentary basis. On the way of his dream, he appointed to Adolfo Suarez as Prime Minister. They, firstly, had aim to declare the wide general amnesty, legalization of the prohibited political parties which suppressed under the Franco’s regimes, make a political reform law, make a democratic general elections. Suarez’s government followed these aims and realized in a short time. Bill of Political Reform accepted from the parliament which have Francoist majority. The confirmatory referandum supported from PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Espanol)[15] and accepted with the %94,4 vote. Political reform law was the important path on the democratization of the regime.

But after, Suarez’s government had a trouble on the legalization of all political parties. Legalization of PCE (Partido Comunista de Espana)[16] and regional nationalist Basque and Catalan parties accepted as dangerous for Cathoic regime and Spain’s territorial integrity. But Carlos and Suarez strived for the integration to all sides to parliament for the establishing comprehensive democratic attendance to the parliament. Excepted EİA which the party established from ETA terrorist organization, all political parties participate the general elections in 1977. These were accepted as important fort he democratization porcess of Spain. New parliament gained constituent assembly with the Carlos’ proposal. This proposal were never seen before at any country. Carlos and Suarez acted with consociational manner on the creating constition and also democratic order. They created a commision for representation. This commision included members from UCD, PSOE, AP, PCE, Catalan nationalist parties which CİU and PNV.[17] Gradual democratization plansof Carlos realized step by step. And also constitutional developments, protected the basic rights and freedoms of Spain citizens and these created to coherence with the Europe. After in a short time, in 1977, Suarez appointed for the full membership to EEC. These appointment was the second one. At first, Spain wasn’t accepted to this organization because of the being nondemocratic country in 1962.

CONCLUSION- ASSESSMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIZATION OF SPAIN WITH THE THESIS OF HUNTINGTON

Spain faced with the dictatorship when when extremist ideology spread the lots of European countries. As Huntington’s thesis, during the first reverse wave, Mussolini in Italy in 1922, Hitler in Germany in 1933 affected the Spain in long term. We called this effect as “snowballing effect” in the democratization theory of Huntington. With second wave, 36 countries have had democracy with the end of the Second World War. Therefore democracies reached its zenith with this progression. Towards to end of Francoist dictatorship, several reform made from the political groups in Spain. In third wave of democratization, Spain passed democracy in the last part of the 1970’s. As we see on the claims of Huntington, as one of the features of the third wave, military governments lost their legitimacy and popularity. As we mentioned under the previous title, social changes appear in this wave. Changing on welfare level of Spain prove this generalization of the democratization theory.

If we assess the democratization of Spain with the international factors, Spain affected from the European Economic Community(EEC)[18]. With the integration of the other European countries to Union, even though it was conflictual issue for differnet political groups, Spain was officially integrated into the EEC on 1 January 1986.[19] Also, United States affected the countries with the liberal applications and discourses. Especially in Carter’s term, promoting democracy to other countries as an aim of soft power. United States used some NGOs fort he realizing the creating contact with other countries. As like Spain, many European countries introduced with these organizations. Organizations which have aim to promote-democracy are IFES, Freedom House, Eurosia Foundation(EF), Carter Center[20], Open Society Institute (a connected Soros foundation)[21]

As followed factors in the democratization theory, some of them can create reverse wave. Especially in 1930’s, Spain had democratic order. Because of the existing of gap in democracy, democratic government damaged. Law and order faced the danger of the militarist, terrorist attacks. With the political and ideological fragmentation, multiple views conflicted each other. Chaotic sphere started to Civil War in 1936. Intervention of non-democratic foreign power triggered the damage of the conflicts and civil war. Some connected to Fascist regimes helped to the Franco’s troops.

Huntington gave an importance to a concept: concensus. In third wave, all democratized countries applied agreement in internal politics. As we saw in the Spain example, the policy of Carlos and Suarez based on consensus with the other political actors and groups. They aimed to widening of the variety of political sides in the parliament and the decision making process.

As a democratization process, Reforma (transformation) is appropriate for the explaining of the transition to democracy in Spain. If we want to understand to democratization process of Spain, we should focus on the late Francoist period and Carlos’ period. According to thesis or clasifications of the Linz and Huntington, we understand that the Franco and his participants as a government actors match with the Hardliners or Standpatters. Reformers were appeared when Franco get lost his penetration and authority. They made reforms for creating democratic order. They had tendency to negotiated with the oppositions. King Juan Carlos and his Prime Minister Adolfo Suarez can be given as an example for the reformers. In opposition actors, Moderates were superior to the Extremists or Radicals. Main opposition party leaders, their groups, groups have tendency for negotiation. With the dominance of the Reformers in government actors and Moderates in opposition actors, agreements can possible. As we see from the Spain, many liberated activities, constitutional progressions, existing of democratic parliamentary, regime change, freedom of representation of the political parties were realized with the many negotiations between government actors and opposition actors. Even though sometimes many reggression of the democratic practice in Spain, they cover a lot of ground until today.


SOURCES:

Radcliff, Pamela Beth, “Making Democratic Citizens in Spain Civil Society and the Popular Origins of the Transition, 1960–78”, Palgrave, 2011

Huntington, Samuel P., “Will More Countries Become Democratic?”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 99, No. 2. (Summer, 1984),

Huntington, Samuel P., “Will More Countries Become Democratic?”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 99, No. 2. (Summer, 1984),

Huntington, Samuel P., “How Countries Democratize”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol.106, No. 4., 1991-92.

Country Studies: Spain. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, Area Handbook Series

McLaren, Lauren M., “Constructing Democracy in Southern Europe A comparative analysis of Italy, Spain, and Turkey”, Routledge,2008.

Townson, Nigel, “Spain Transformed, The Late Franco Dictatorship, 1959–75”, Palgrave, 2007.

Edles, Laura Desfor, Symbol and ritual in the new Spain: the transition to democracy after Franco, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Mangen, S. P. “Spanish Society After Franco, Regime Transition and the Welfare State”, Palgrave, 2001.

 

Shain, Yossi,  Linz, Juan J. ,“Between states: Interim governments and democratic transitions, Cambridge University Press, 1995.

 

Özçer, Akın,  İspanya’nın Kademeli Demokratikleşme Sürecinde Anayasa Yapısı, Türkiye Ekonomi Politikaları Araştırma Vakfı, Anayasa Çalışmaları

https://www.tepav.org.tr/tr/haberler/s/359

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francisco-Franco http://www.exteriores.gob.es/Portal/en/PoliticaExteriorCooperacion/UnionEuropea/Paginas/EspUE aspx

https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/soft-power-democracy-promotion-and-us-ngos

 

[1] Pamela Beth Radcliff, “Making Democratic Citizens in Spain Civil Society and the Popular Origins of the Transition, 1960–78”, Palgrave, 2011, p.45.

[2] Samuel P. Huntington, “Will More Countries Become Democratic?”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 99, No. 2. (Summer, 1984), p.198.

[3] Samuel P. Huntington, “Will More Countries Become Democratic?”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 99, No. 2. (Summer, 1984), p.207.

[4] Samuel P. Huntington, “Will More Countries Become Democratic?”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 99, No. 2. (Summer, 1984), p.210.

[5] Samuel P. Huntington, “How Countries Democratize”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol.106, No. 4., 1991-92

[6] Parliamentary of Spain. “The Cortes is the most powerful governmental institution of the state. It is made up of a lower house, the Congress of Deputies, and an upper chamber, the Senate. The Congress of Deputies, the stronger of the two bodies, may consist of between 300 and 400 members—although electoral laws have set the norm at 350 deputies—elected by proportional representation every four years, unless parliament is dissolved earlier by the head of state. The Senate is composed of 208 directly elected members and 49 regional representatives, also chosen every four years.” Country Studies: Spain. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, Area Handbook Series, p.213,215.

[7] Lauren M. McLaren, “Constructing Democracy in Southern Europe A comparative analysis of Italy, Spain, and Turkey”, Routledge,2008, p.53.

[8] Nigel Townson, “Spain Transformed, The Late Franco Dictatorship, 1959–75”, Palgrave, 2007, p.16.

[9] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francisco-Franco Date accessed: January, 1st, 2019

[10] Laura Desfor Edles, “Symbol and ritual in the new Spain: the transition to democracy

after Franco”, Cambridge University Press, 1998, p.37.

[11] Laura Desfor Edles, “Symbol and ritual in the new Spain: the transition to democracy

after Franco”, Cambridge University Press, 1998, p.38.

[12] Francisco Javier Rodríguez Jiménez,  Lorenzo Delgado Gómez-Escalonilla, and Nicholas J. Cull (ed) “US Public Diplomacy and Democratization in Spain, Selling Democracy”, US Public Diplomacy and Democracy Promotion inAuthoritarian Spain: Approaches, Themes,and Messages, Pablo Le ó n-Aguinaga, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p.94

[13] S. P. Mangen, “Spanish Society After Franco, Regime Transition and the Welfare State”, Palgrave, 2001, p.190-196

[14] Yossi Shain, Juan J. Linz, “Between states: Interim governments and democratic transitions, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p.16.

[15] Spanish Socialist Workers’Party

[16] Communist Party of Spain

[17] Akın Özçer, “İspanya’nın Kademeli Demokratikleşme Sürecinde Anayasa Yapısı”, Türkiye Ekonomi PolitikalarI Araştırma Vakfı, Anayasa Çalışmaları: https://www.tepav.org.tr/tr/haberler/s/359

[18] “The European Economic Community was created by the Treaty of Rome in 1957. It was often called the Common Market, since its core function was fostering economic cooperation between its member states: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany. The EEC operated alongside the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC). The three separate Communities were brought together in 1967, and the official name became the European Communities. With the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the EC became the EU.”  http://ukandeu.ac.uk/fact-figures/what-was-the-european-economic-community/

[19] http://www.exteriores.gob.es/Portal/en/PoliticaExteriorCooperacion/UnionEuropea/Paginas/EspUE.aspx Date accessed: January, 1st, 2019.

[20] “Founded by former President Jimmy Carter and former First Lady Rosalynn Carter in 1982. While democracy-promotion is one of its main goals, the organization also focuses on conflict resolution and human rights.”  https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/soft-power-democracy-promotion-and-us-ngos

[21] Website of Council on Foreign Relation: https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/soft-power-democracy-promotion-and-us-ngos Date assessed: January,1st, 2019.

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Furkan EMİROĞLU

Istanbul Medeniyet Univ. Political Sciences furkanemirrr@gmail.com

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