I want to mention about Kenneth Waltz to understand the third image. He is founder of neorealizm. Actually, he would be founder of neorealizm to develop balance of power. Waltz remains one of the most influential International relations theories. As noted, he is the best known for his theory of International politics ,and his attempt to develop a truly systemic theory of International relations. Waltz had mentioned black box in realist theory first time. Waltz was first best known for ‘LEVEL OF ANALYSIS’. He touched on three images in his own book, and also Waltz makes the point that to explain how peace can be better achieved, one must first improve one’s understanding of the causes of the war. Some argue that human nature is the basic cause of war. Others argue, it is the internal organization of states that is the key to understanding war and peace. While Waltz was mentioning this subject, he was referencing J.J Rousseau and Thucydides, ‘especially Rousseau.’

Firstly, if you want to understand third image, you should need to know first-two images. First image is human behaviournevertheless, individual size ‘. According to first image, of international relations, the focus of the important causes of war is found in the nature and behaviour of man. Wars result from selfishness, stupidity, etc.. Second image is the internal structure of states. ‘ nevertheless governmental size ‘. According to second image of international relations, the first image did not exclude the influence of the state, but the role of state was introduced as a consideration less important than, and to be explained in terms of, human behaviour. Lastly, third image is international system ‘ nevertheless, international anarchy’. Waltz refutes first and second image in his books, because cause of outcrop of war time and time again is anarchial structure of international system. According to him, there is no higher authority than that of the states to stop wars, with many sovereign states, with no system of law enforcable among them. In anarchy there is no harmony the three preceding statements reflect this fact. I mentioned above that, he referenced Rousseau, Thucydides, etc.. Both Montesquie and Rousseau maintain the state of nature Hobbes. Waltz maintained this subject but he said that ‘cause of war is anarchial structure.’ , and ‘the state among the states in the his book’, he said that, ıf anarchy is problem, than there are only two possible solutions. (1) to impose and effective control on the seperate and imperfect states ; (2) to remove states from the sphere of the accidental.

Secondly, ıf we want to know Kenneth Waltz and his ideas, we should understand ‘Explaining War: Level of Analysis’. Generally, level of analysis bases on history (civilization). There are David Singer’s issues in the level of analysis. At the same time, he said that, the most ideal international system was bipolar World. There is unipolar system over the World right now ,but there will be bipolar system in the future because bipolar system protects the balance of power, and improve the balances.

In conclusion, nevertheless ‘Man, the State and War’ is a classical text in international relations, and this did not happen accidentally. The third image, like the first two images, leads directly to a utopian prescription. There is important ground to cover is made clear by two points. First,’there is no automatic harmony in anarchy’ ,and proposition that among autonomous states war is inevitable. There is no obvious logical relation between this ideas. Second, we have not systematically considered the problem of interrelating them. ın shortly, his third image argumentation may not be flawless but it was definetely a major contubution in comprehending the way ınternational politics work and especially its negative culmination; ‘WAR’.




Kenneth Waltz : ‘Man,the State and War’ , Kenneth Waltz’s third image : international system

Anarchy and War : A Critique of Waltz Third Image , Paschalis Pechlivanis 2012

International Relations Theory : Paul Viotti 5th Edition , Kenneth Waltz’s level of Analysis and Waltz’s Images

Suleyman ELIK, Theory of International Relations Lecture’s Notes

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Istanbul Medeniyet University, Faculty of Political Science, Department of International Relations. [email protected]

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