The consumed energy sources have been changed in time. However, the role of energy is increasingly go on national and international economy, policy and politic order.
Especially with emerging industrial revolution and the mechanization of needing a large amount of energy to operate the machine, fold the relatively low level of energy needs, such as cooking and heating needs of human beings has led to the increase.
Today, the most significant sources of economic growth and development is energy which has a growing strategic due to its impact on the countries’ economies in national and international systems.
If a state wants be a dominant power in international energy market, it has to have energy sources, as well as production energy with acceptable cost and transportation it safety are vitally important.
In this sense, ever increasing global energy demand in return for the issues of security of energy supply which be going to run and run for both energy producer-consumer countries and foreign-dependent countries in energy market.
The energy issues concerns policies in nation agenda, likewise, the definition and measurement of the energy supply security discussions continues.
Within this framework, will be referred Strategic Importance of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines.
Firstly, there is a close link between trade and interdependence, because international trade would create domestic interest in its maintenance. On one hand, exporters want increase own products in the market. On the other hand, importers be in expect of supply rising. Likewise, foreign investors, bankers and finance institutions would like stand up for oneself. For this frame, the best example is energy trade.
International trade actualized through oil and natural gas pipeline creates international interdependence among the energy exporter, importer and transit countries.
Security of demand is considerable for exporters countries and their economies, on the other hand, energy importers do not want their supplies interrupted for any reasons. In other words, energy security is vital for exporters and importers. In addition to this, energy transportation generates new actors in the market, such as transit states. The relations between energy producers, consumers, transit states and participant companies, which have entered into each other.
- Security of Supply for Energy Importers
The countries has to provide obligation of achievement for order to continue its production activities, and global energy security is a part of national energy security, in 21st century. The policies of national energy security be conformed and do not conflict with the policies of global energy security. Both them feed each other.
The security of energy sources be influenced from decrease of production, climatic conditions, political crisis, natural disasters, and such as variables.
The countries have to continue one’s works for provide to security of energy source; protection and improving reserve in the country, and making production and capacity projections for future periods. Investments that are required to be used in an efficient way of reserves, providing the resources needed for financing should be implemented.
Another point, with no doubt, safe and fair conditions include the energy agreement with the owner of the source country is important. In the same way, the political atmosphere is vital for security of supply in terms of energy importers. For example such as economic collapse, military coup, and political crisis reasons would interrupt energy flow from exporters to importers.
- Security of Demand for Energy Exporters
The other side of the energy security issue is security of demand. It should be remembered that revenues coming from the energy trade are the backbone of the budgets of the exporting countries. For example, the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) suffer from the negative implications of unbalanced balance of payments. Trade balances of the OPEC members have indicators of exporting energy sources and import almost all of the consumption of the country.
Unsteady flow of oil and gas to global markets with unaffordable prices will result in articulations of different form energy. The importance attached to renewable and alternative energy forms will be foregrounded in accordance with the developments, new findings and advancements in energy form that are regarded to be used instead of hydrocarbon resources.
In the event of the absence of the supplier, energy importer countries would find new suppliers. Therefore, it should not be forgotten that oil and natural gas pipelines acquire a strategic importance in the sense that infrastructure under consideration combine that importer and exporter countries together.
- Strategic Importance of Pipeline Transportation
The pipelines are serviceable transportation for the liquid and gas fluids -crude oil and natural gas-. The flow provided with a pressure difference in the pipeline.
The most suitable way of transportation is determined by geology, geography, and the type of energy and the economies of scale. For example, Turkey serves as a bridge between the continents which has a strategic importance of oil and gas transportation. Turkey does away with interval among Middle East and Europe.
In this section, will include Turkey’s oil and natural gas pipelines. Turkey is to become an energy bridge in the international arena with the pipelines.
- The Pipelines of Turkey
The activities related to oil pipeline transport is carried out by Petroleum Pipeline Corporation (PPC, BOTAS) in Turkey.
- Can-Canakkale Natural Gas Transmission Line
- Karacabey (Bursa)-Izmir Natural Gas Transmission Line
- Selmo-Batman Crude Oil Pipeline
- East Anatolia Natural Gas Transmission Line
- Russia-Turkey Natural Gas Pipeline
- Ceyhan-Kirikkale Crude Oil Pipeline
- Batman-Dortyol Crude Oil Pipeline
- Irak-Turkey Crude Oil Pipeline
Under construction pipelines:
- Russia-Turkey Natural Gas Pipeline (Blue Transmission)
- Baku-Tiflis-Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline
- South Natural Gas Pipeline
- Konya-Izmir Natural Gas Pipeline
- Turkey-Bulgaria-Romania-Hungary Natural Gas Pipeline (NABUCCO Project)
- Turkmenistan-Turkey-Europe Natural Gas Pipelines
- Irak-Turkey Natural Gas Pipeline
- Egypt-Turkey Natural Gas pipeline
- Interdependence of the Relevant Parties
In the energy field, the volume of exporters and importers of energy trade grows, the interdependence between the parties occurs. Thus, the parties are prevented from going to damage the interests of each other.
Indeed, the parties are behaving more sensitive about not harming the interests of each other. The relations between Spain and Algeria, exactly constitutes a good example of this point. However, Russia and Europe, although there were some issues that could subject them fight, to escape the relationship between them and trade in energy have preferred to maintain a delicate balance.
Oil and natural gas pipelines generate a large network between energy producers, consumers, transit states and participant companies. All of these relations are such as braided rope and this situation creates a fragile structure among the parties.
In the international energy market, all participants have to vindicate and safe other actors-dynamics rights and interests because of the mutual interdependences.
 Asst. Prof. Dr. İdris Demir, Istanbul Medeniyet University Faculty of Political Scines, Department of International Relations,