FRENCH REVOLUTION AND IMPACTS ON OTTOMAN EMPIRE

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Some events are echoed all over the world. The French Revolution is one of them. Because, French Revolution has important effects on all over the world. The most important of these is undoubtedly affect democracy.

The French Revolution was a revolution in France from 1789 to 1799. It led to the end of the monarchy. King Louis XVI was executed in 1793. The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte took power in November 1799. In 1804, he became Emperor. France has fallen into the 18th century’s social, political and economic crises, It had been a major factor in the emergence of the French Revolution. However, the French Revolution freedom raised by equality, brotherhood, political concepts such as nationalism It affects the whole world.

Before 1789, France was ruled by the nobles and the Catholic Church. The ideas of the Enlightenment were beginning to make the ordinary people want more power. They could see that the American Revolution had created a country in which the people had power, instead of a king. The government before the revolution was called the Ancient Regime.

Intellectual Causes of The Revolution

Rapidly changing society, under this ‘enlightenment philosophers’ there was a big influence.  Enlightenment philosophy, logic, is convinced that the deep-rooted traditions and political regime ordered the removal of the absolutist tendencies. Enlightener and argued the idea that it should be in all areas of freedom.

Economic Causes of The Revolution

Revolution from previous years are not considered much too bright for the French economy. In addition, only famine, they encounter problems when they took the road to withstand hunger to migrate to cities as the only solution to the continent, but also expect them bright living in cities; the needs of the growing population of the city has come to the state cannot afford.

The population increase has led to a proliferation of people to be fed. The unemployment problem in the coming confrontation led to an increase in social problems unable to find employment opportunities. In fact, the economy of France was considered by many advanced modern state; but the difference is seen in comparison with the previous period, the decline has put people into a panic.

In which the People’s economic problems, disruption of tax is the most important source of revenue of the state have led to the payment of regular taxes to the treasury was dragging a huge crisis, is more of a protracted war costs and the increase in war costs with the development of technology has become a de brink of bankruptcy in the state and because of the excesses of the court costs. Therefore king, increasing taxes and introducing new taxes have kept the way; the spread of taxes under the plan in the whole society has emerged the idea. Parliament’s general assembly in Paris by consent against this new tax, he asked the gathering of the Estates General.

France lost the domination on all the colonies in North America in 1763, the Seven Years’ War with the Treaty of Paris was signed after losing to England. England, the financial burden of the Seven Years War, attempted to remove the colony of new taxes; this had created unrest in the North American colonies.

Thirteen Colonies began in 1774 as the American War of Independence lasted the declaration of independence in 1776. France participated in the largest dimension to the conflict indirectly by giving financial support. This war spending and increasing court costs have also exhausted the financial aspects of the French monarch.

Tuileries Palace Raid

On August 10, 1792 volunteer soldiers and townspeople pressing the Tuileries Palace, the royal family was caught off and Temple Tower. Initially bourgeoisie, kings and nobles pulling to the side of liberal social and economic structure of France, had to make arrangements with the account the interests of all three parties. But the opposite was no allies in this opinion. XVI. Louis, resisted not willing to limit his authority. II. Leopold, was also the brother of the queen Mari Antionetti France.

French Revolution’s Impacts on Ottoman Empire

 The French Revolution freedom raised by equality, brotherhood, political concepts such as nationalism It affects the whole world, especially on Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire did not care much initially when revolution began because ottoman diplomatists commented on different way that they thought that this event is only French domestic problem.

But over the time Ottoman Empire began to be effected. So French Revolution  has several impacts  on Ottoman Empire. When we looked this positives impact’s result that Ottomans tried to be taken to be guarantee the fundamental rights and freedoms. The spread of social equality and policy as a result of the French revolution. Also there was many negatives effect from revolution such as nationalism. Nationalism was the most important effect because Ottoman Empire was a multinational state.  Nationalism has spread rapidly among minorities in the Ottoman Empire stream. Over time, they began to win their independence and Ottoman Empire break-up with this separation.

The Results of The French Revolution

French Revolution had negatives and positives impact on all society because of its result such as impacts on the world democracy. The otherwise great empires and Europe states tried to prevent French revolution’s negatives effects at the Vienna congress but this venture did not  last long because of effects of  nationalism.  The spread of nationalism has caused the collapse of the multinational empire and the establishment of national states. With the French Revolution great empires left to replace nation states and  one of them is Ottoman Empire. Social classes that existed since the Middle Ages in France ended, the principle of equality was adopted. The nobleman and the privileges of the priests were removed and the principles of equality wanted to dominate by community. İt understood that destroyed the absolute monarchy because of effects of nationalism and equality. We said that democratic principles most important results because after the revolution democratic principles were adopted on the whole world. The idea of nationalism was widespread throughout the world and proclaimed the Declaration of Human and Citizen Rights. By the way Revolution brought freedom, equality, considering that it is dangerous for them ideas of nationalism led war between European states and France. Thus Revolutionary War began.  Although French Revolution gave many rights to societies, with the jacobeans second revolution a large number of people were murdered but we have been  focusing on the overall results. As a result  new problems have emerged, which will last for many years in France and in Europe. New Age ended, the Modern age began.

As a summary French Revolution is the most important changing for all societies and nations. After the revolution great empires distributed and nation states were built. Minorities won many rights by the time. The most important result of revolution was nationalism because the idea of nationalism spread all over the world especially destroyed the great and multinational empires.

 

 Aydın GÜVEN

 

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  • Hüseyin Serdar TABAKOĞLU- The Impact Of The French Revolution On The Ottoman-Spanish Relations

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Aydın GÜVEN

HİNDİSTAN-PAKİSTAN aydinguvenmdnyt@gmail.com

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