EXAMINATION ON THE CENTRAL AND LOCAL STRUCTURE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION   

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Abstract

When one looks at the definition of the state, it is possible to mention an institution with three elements that George Jellinek also did. They are the nation that is a community of people, the country that is an element of land and the sovereignty that is an element of power. In order for the state that contains these elements to continue, its administrative structure must be strong enough to meet its needs. One of the most important ways to achieve this is to have a strong organizational structure. This organizational structure is divided into two as local and central. In this context, the state to be examined in this article is the Russian Federation. In the historical process, the Russian Federation has formed its present structure by being governed with state and administrative understandings in very different structures. Under the Tsarist regime, the transition from a state ruled by absolute monarchy to a socialist state under the influence of Marxist ideology and eventually to the Russian Federation was made. After the fall of the Soviets, the Russian Federation, which emerged as the “poor power” with its complex bureaucratic structure, ethnic diversity and a different understanding of the state, tried to ensure the continuity of the state. The strong political and administrative moves made during the Putin era and the change of the world economic system in favor of Russia, which came to a head after the transition period in which various administrative difficulties were dealt with, helped the country recover administratively. This study aims to better understand the structure of the state by examining the local and central organizational structure of the present Russian Federation.

Key Concepts: State, Administration, Local and Central Organization, Bureaucracy, Soviet Union, Centralization and Decentralization, Russian Federation.

Öz

Devlet tanımına bakıldığı zaman George Jellinek’in de yaptığı üç unsurun bir arada bulunduğu bir kurumdan bahsetmek mümkündür. Bunlar hukuki olarak; insanlar topluluğu olan millet, toprak unsuru olan ülke ve iktidar unsuru olan egemenliktir. Bu unsurları içinde barındıran devletin devam edebilmesi için idari yapısının ihtiyaçlarını karşılamaya yetecek kadar güçlü olması gerekmektedir. Bunu sağlamanın en önemli yollarından birisi de güçlü bir teşkilat yapısına sahip olmaktır. Bu teşkilat yapısı yerel ve merkezi olarak ikiye ayrılmaktadır. Bu bağlamda bu yazıda incelenecek devlet Rusya Federasyonu’dur. Tarihi süreç içerisinde Rusya Federasyonu birbirinden çok farklı yapılarda devlet ve yönetim anlayışlarıyla idare edilerek bugünkü yapısını oluşturmuştur. Çarlık rejiminde mutlak monarşiyle yönetilen bir devletten devrim sonucunda Marksist ideolojinin etkisi altında kalmış bir sosyalist devlete ve sonunda Rusya Federasyonu’na geçiş yapılmıştır. Sovyetler yıkıldıktan sonra “yoksul güç” olarak karmaşık bürokratik yapısı, etnik çeşitliliği ve farklı bir devlet anlayışıyla ortaya çıkan Rusya Federasyonu, devletin devamlılığını sağlamaya çalışmıştır. Çeşitli idari sıkıntılarla baş edilmeye çalışılan geçiş dönemi sonrasında başa gelen Putin döneminde yapılan güçlü politik ve idari hamleler ve dünya ekonomik sisteminin Rusya lehine değişimi ülkenin idari olarak toparlanmasını sağlamıştır. Bu çalışma bugünkü Rusya Federasyonu’nun yerel ve merkezi teşkilat yapısını inceleyerek devletin yapısını daha iyi anlamayı hedeflemektedir.

Anahtar Kavramlar: Devlet, Yönetim, Yerel ve Merkezi Teşkilatlanma, Bürokrasi, Sovyetler Birliği, Merkezileşme ve Adem-i Merkeziyet, Rusya Federasyonu.

Реферат

Учитывая определение государства, можно упомянуть институт, в котором сосуществуют три элемента, которые также деконструировал Джордж Желинек. Это юридически; это нация, которая является сообществом людей, страной, которая является территориальным элементом, и суверенитетом, который является элементом власти. Для того, чтобы государство, в котором находятся эти элементы, продолжалось, его административная структура должна быть достаточно сильной, чтобы удовлетворить его потребности. Один из самых важных способов добиться этого-иметь сильную структуру организации. Эта структура организации делится на локальную и центральную. В связи с этим государство, которое будет рассмотрено в этой статье, является Российской Федерацией. В ходе исторического процесса Российская Федерация сформировала свою нынешнюю структуру, управляя очень разными структурами с пониманием государства и управления. В результате революции из государства, управляемого царским режимом с абсолютной монархией, в социалистическое государство, попавшее под влияние марксистской идеологии, и, в конечном счете, в Российскую Федерацию. Российская Федерация, возникшая после распада СССР как “бедная власть” со сложной бюрократической структурой, этническим разнообразием и разнообразным пониманием государства, стремилась обеспечить преемственность государства. Сильные политические и административные шаги, предпринятые во время путинского периода после переходного периода, который пытался справиться с различными административными проблемами, и изменение мировой экономической системы в пользу России обеспечило административное восстановление страны. Эта работа направлена на то, чтобы лучше понять структуру государства, изучив структуру локальной Центральной организации Российской Федерации.

Ключевые Слова: государство, администрация, местная и центральная организация, бюрократия, Советский Союз, централизация и децентрализация, Российская Федерация.

INTRODUCTION

The state consists of a merger of three main elements. These three elements are the nation as a community of people, the country as a territorial element, and the sovereignty as an element of power.

The state shall not be formed in the absence of any of these elements without any significant difference between them. Even if it is unmanned land, there is no sovereignty. Even if there are people without land, there is no space to rule. If there were man and land, the state would not form again without sovereignty.

The state is a legal entity within the framework of different legal entities. It can’t be reduced to smaller parts.[2]

Many different ideological definitions related to the state are shaped by these elements.

It is the aims of the state to protect the people from external threats, to raise the welfare level of the people and to ensure their continuity, and also to ensure the security of the people within themselves. In order to achieve these objectives, an organizational structure and planned activities form a whole.

The administration is a set of actions carried out in a planned manner by an organization or a group of people who come together for a purpose. [3] Organization is important for the administration of the state. The need to collect the limited resources regularly and ensure that the institutions implementing them are able to perform their tasks efficiently and effectively constitutes the reason for the administrative organization of the state.[4] 

The organization of the administration is examined in two separate forms. They are divided as central and local.

IMPORTANCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

The central administration is, by general definition, the state to perform its own public services directly without any other means.

It is maintained by the state, which is a single legal entity. The state divided public services within the framework of issues and formed ministries as responsible for them. Ministries are not legal entities. They act by using the authority of the state and representing its personality. The decision-making authority belongs to the center, the capital. The last one of the important parts of the central administration structure is the provincial organization, which is an extension. In a hierarchical system, it acts within the framework of the orders and prohibitions of the center.[5]

The Local Government is the public legal entities that are under the direct tutelage of the central government but have some autonomy against it. In this context, five different general features emerge. These are; to have a land, to have a human element, to be a public legal entity, to have a certain power or autonomy, and to be under the tutelage supervision of the central government.[6]

The state to be examined under these definitions is the Russian Federation. In order to understand the administrative organization structure of the Russian Federation, it is necessary to know the historical background. In many ways, The Empire is a continuation of the USSR inherited a structure within the framework of a administration approach.

HISTORY OF ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The Russians, whose historical background can be traced back to at least the ninth century, made the most effective and modern move in the meaning of administration during the reign of Peter the First. Aspiring to be a modern leader, Petro introduced innovations about the orderly functioning of the state through his European travels and experience of his predecessors. Outside the military field, the state’s hierarchical and bureaucratic organization structured by creating “Civil Servant (Чиновник/Çinovnik)” called the branch of profession has strengthened. By dividing the state geographically into 8 parts by appointing officers named as “Gubernator (Губернатор)”.[7]  Although its influence has been debated, it has ensured that the concept of modern administration is entrenched in Russian geography. This period, which has a centralist understanding, has maintained its effectiveness in this geography until today. 

From the seventeenth century until the establishment of the USSR, the situation of leader-oriented policy making, which was very common in monarchies, and the bureaucracy, which was one of the reasons for the revolution, increased further. The revolution that took place in 1917 also aimed to destroy this structure.[8]

The revolution, carried out by the Labours who exploited by Bourgeois, had an understanding of governance based on an egalitarian and classless society.[9]  This egalitarian attitude was especially seen within the framework of the policies carried out in the Russian geography, which has a high ethnic diversity on its territory. During the fall of empires and the rise of nation states, the “Right of Nations to Determine Their Own Destinies”[10] established by Lenin succeeded in gathering all of these ethnic parts under the umbrella of the USSR. This success led him to receive the imperial legacy in a different form of governance. His legacy from the Empire was not just land. The reflection of the political institutions and bureaucratic system that the bourgeois had, which were thought to be obsolete, rotten and has to be destroyed, has come into existence within the USSR’s own structure. This bureaucratic structure was further strengthened by the party’s hand. Especially during the Stalin era and II. World War period when party policies were more effective and intense.[11]  This intensity revealed the totalitarian communist bureaucracy which we call as ” Nomenkletura (Номенклатура)[12]. The names we know as the leaders of the USSR actually held the duty of Secretary General of the Party. The party is the principal executive of the state and the state bodies are accountable to the party. The system that would last until Gorbachev failed to recover and collapsed, especially after Cold War fatigue, despite reforms such as the 1977 Constitution[13] and “Glasnost” and “Perestroika”.[14]

The collapse of the USSR in 1991 meant entering a new era regionally. All relationships have been reshaped and management structures have been re-constructed. The process of constructing a complex bureaucratic structure of nearly 70 years has been difficult in the Russian Federation, like all states in Post-Soviet geography.

The 1993 Constitution, which still applies today, has been a landmark for the history of the Federation. The referendum was attended by 54.8% of the people who could vote and the Constitution was adopted by 58.4% who voted “Yes”. The social, economic, political and legal foundations of the Federation were discussed in the process of forming the Constitution. In this context, Russian Federation emerged as egalitarian, democratic, national and state law based republic which have will of administrate itself, respectful to basic human rights and fundamental freedoms, where free elections are held and sovereignty belongs to the nation, with federal system which protect citizens rights, social, where there are economic freedoms and private property, based on the principle of separation of powers as a secular state.[15]

CENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Central policies and centralism have always been the most important doctrine except for short-term disconnections in the traditional state administration system of these lands. The Russian Federation experienced one of these brief periods during the fall of the Soviets and the subsequent period of Boris Yeltsin, who came to power. The tensions in domestic politics and the harsh changes in foreign policy are among the periods when the center softens to avoid division rather than holding power. A lot of rights were granted to the republics by Boris Yeltsin. On the contrary, with his successor Vladimir Putin coming to power, he will try to revive the central structure and move the Russian Federation away from the concept of “Poor Power.”

The central organization structure is different from the Russian Federation as the terminology and conceptualization used in administrative sense in Turkey. Administrative and central units in Turkey used as bodies in the Russian Federation.[16]

Looking at the Constitution of The Federation in Article 10 it is written that the power of the state is based on the legislative, executive and judiciary within the framework of the separation of powers. In this context, first, the most basic element of the central structure and the head of the executive, president should be examined.

Fourth part of the Constitution between Article 80 and 93 duties, responsibilities and limits are defined. The head of State is equipped with very broad powers, as can be seen from the articles, and as is expected in systems that have a semi-presidential system at the same time. Therefore, a “president-centered” administrative approach is formed. The administrative differences between Boris Yeltsin and the Putin era will be more easily understood in this way. There are 4 mainstays of this concept used by Natig Abdullayev. The first is the power to unite the legislature, the executive and the judiciary by taking a place above all the powers. Even if President doesn’t do it directly, President does it with the participation of every man. The second reason is the language of the Constitution. Accordingly, the head of state was mentioned in the Constitution so early that its importance was expressed within the framework of the style of the Constitution. The third reason is that he is endowed with too much authority. 30 of the 137 articles of the Constitution have articles directly linked to the head of state. The fourth reason is the direct election of the head of state by the people. In this way, it also ensures its democratic legitimacy.[17]

When examining the duties, responsibilities and limits of the head of state, a ranking can be made as follows.

  • It is the guarantor of the Constitution and everything defined within the framework of the Constitution.
  • Has the authority to direct the determination of the internal and foreign policies of the state within the framework of the laws.
  • The Duma appoints the head of government with its consent and forms the cabinet with the proposal of the head of government.
  • In accordance with the law, the State Duma determines its elections and may terminate it. In addition, he presents a draft law to this assembly.
  • Has the authority to determine a referendum.
  • He is the Supreme Commander of the state.
  • Has the authority to issue decrees.
  • Has the right to immunity.
  • The power to dismiss from duty belongs only to the Federation Council if it receives at least two-thirds of the total votes as a result of the vote. The charge of treason can be put forward by the State Duma.[18]

Another important body of central policy is the Government of the Russian Federation. The duties, responsibilities and powers of the government are defined between Article 110 and 117 of the Constitution. The clauses are specified among them. The government, which is considered the head of the executive branch, consists of the prime minister, vice prime misnister and federal ministers. The duties and responsibilities of the government under the Constitution can be listed as follows.

  • The head of government, appointed by the head of state with the consent of the State Duma, proposes to the head of state a candidate for the formation of the government.
  • It has a duty to direct Federal budget, credit, monetary and fiscal policies.
  • Directs policies in the fields of culture, ecology, social security, science, health and education.
  • Fights crime to ensure that citizens rights and freedoms, property and public order are not harmed.
  • The decisions of the government may be annulled by the head of state when they conflict with the Constitution of the Federation, federal laws and decrees of the head of State[19]

The organs of the executive part of the center are followed by the organs of the legislative authority. The original body of the legislation is the Federal Council. The duties, responsibilities and limitations of the Federal Council are included between the Article 94 and 109 of the Constitution. The Federal Council is divided into two: upper and lower. But this is not a hierarchical ranking. The legislative mandate is distributed between these two assemblies. The Upper House is called the Federation Council and the Lower House is called the State Duma.

The Federation Council is the balance and control mechanism to ensure the continuity of the principle of separation of powers. Each federated unit receives representatives, one person from the executive and one person from the Legislature. Under the “Federal Law On The Formation Of The Federation Council” in 1995[20], representatives were the heads of the legislative and executive powers, but the Federal Council is a permanent working body according to the Constitution. There have been some administrative difficulties and setbacks. Because of that, the law was updated in 2000.[21] Thus, each federated unit elects the person to represent the legislature itself.[22] The president of the executive branch of the Federated unit appoints the person to represent the executive branch.[23]

The Duma is the balance and control mechanism to ensure the continuity of the principle of separation of powers, such as the Federation Council. Apart from the Federation Council, the Duma is the assembly consisting of 450 people, directly elected by the people, with untouchables using the title of Deputy. Parliamentary elections are held every four years except in exceptional circumstances. Until 2005, MPs were elected through a mixed electoral system. However, after 2005, the proportional representation electoral system began to be implemented. Candidates affiliated to parties that comply with the federal law on political parties enacted in 2001 are elected within this scope. To enter parliament, the 5% electoral threshold must be exceeded.

The duties, responsibilities and limitations of the two assemblies are given in particular between articles 102 and 109.[24] In some cases, it is clear that these two institutions are connected to each other and in some cases are in cooperation with other bodies, and they have an important role in the internal affairs of the state.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

In the modern understanding, it is seen that local governments were formed during the I.Petro period, when we saw the first steps of the administrative system. Under the provincial system called Guberniya(Губерния), district administrations called Uyezd(Уезд) were formed. While the provinces were governed by appointed administrators, the districts were governed by the administration formed by people elected from among the people of the region. Responsible for health, education and economic development, it was also involved in the administration of day-to-day affairs.[25]

Another important step taken in relation to local governments is made by II. Alexander. In 1864 the structures called Zemstvo (Земство) were established with the aim of regulating the local structure, especially after the reform of the abolition of serfdom. But its failure stemmed from the fact that the rulers were made up of nobles and that these nobles were representatives of the bourgeoisie in the process leading up to the revolution. The structure for the people only worked in favor of one coterie. It was abolished with the October Revolution.[26]

Similar to this system in the Soviet era, it is possible to identify as local government units that do not have autonomy due to their loyalty to the party, even if popularly elected units were created.[27]

In order to mobilize the different ethnic and religious groups that emerged after the collapse of the Soviets and not to disrupt the integrity of the country, a system was created that was mandatory for the Russian demographic structure. This system came into force with the 1993 constitution.

Apart from the Constitution, the Russian Federation has also set the legal framework of local governments with a number of generally accepted principles and norms. Within the scope of Federal legislation, two laws, “Law On The Organization Principles Of Local Self-Government İn The Russian Federation”[28] were enacted in 1995 and “Law On The Organization Principles Of Local Self-Government İn The Russian Federation”[29] enacted in 2003. “Local Self-Government Support Program” was adopted in 1995. Finally, there is the “European Charter Of Local Governments Autonomy”, which was signed in 1996 and entered into force in 1998.[30]

There are 85 separate federated units that we will put in the first stage of the local government table. The first of these federated units is called The Republic (Республика).[31] They have their own constitution, parliament and head of state. Their local language, along with Russian, is recognized as an official language within the region. The second is called Oblast (Область)[32]. There are 46 oblasts within the Federation’s borders. Oblasts are the most common federated units. It is run by the governor and council appointed by the center.[33]  The third unit is Kray (Край)[34]. It has the same status as oblasts. The word means “edge” as it means. This name, given by people living along the border, has a historical meaning.  The fourth unit is called Autonomous Okrug (Автономный округ)[35]. When compared with the oblasts, they have a more autonomous structure and are more dependent on the center than the republics. Their structure has changed over time. This unit, which is mostly composed of ethnic groups, has changed to become Oblast-Autonomous Oblast-Autonomous Okrug. Autonomous Oblast (Автономная область)[36] is the previous structure of Autonomous Okrugs. Only this structure of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast is intact. Finally there are Federated cities (Федеральный город)[37].  They are directly connected to the center. In other words, federated units are examined in 6 separate structures. All of these are called political units, but they have equal rights but different administrative structures that they can freely determine. The entire constitutional framework for these is drawn between Article 65 to 79.

The governor is appointed in order to provide central administrative custody to the federated units. In addition, during the Putin era, the entire country was divided into eight Federal Okrug (Федеральный округ) units, aiming to increase the absolute efficiency of the Central Administration over the federated units. This is understandable given the complex demographic structure in the region. The Russian Federation continues to govern as a centralised federation.

The Russian Federation has its own sense of local government as well as its own sense of central government. In this context, the correct concept should be local self-government, not local government.

In addition to the political units, in Article 12 of the constitution, local self-government is recognized and guaranteed. Local Self-Governments are under the tutelage of the central government, even if they have autonomy within the framework of their own authority.  Local self-government created by taking into account the history and local traditions is composed of 5 different structures under the title of basic terms and concepts in the 2. Article of Federal Act. The governance structure of each of these is determined by the public. Documents published by the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation dated 1 January 2019 state that there are 21501 local self-government bodies.[38]

In this context, municipal units;

Rural settlement (Сельское Поселение/ Selskoye Paseleniye): One or several rural localities United by a common territory (settlements, villages, villages, hamlets, villages, auls and other rural localities) in which local self-government is carried out by the population directly and (or) through elected and other local self-government bodies.

Urban Settlement (Городское Поселение/ Garadskoye Paseleniye): A city or settlement in which local self-government is carried out by the population directly and (or) through elected and other local self-government bodies.

Municipal District (Муниципальный Район/Munitsipalnoy Rayon): Several settlements or settlements and inter-settlement territories, United by a common territory within which local self-government is carried out in order to address issues of local importance rural nature of the population directly and (or) through elected and other bodies of local self-government, which can exercise some state powers transferred to local governments by Federal laws and laws of subjects of the Russian Federation.

Urban Settlement (Городской Округ/Garadskoy Okrug): Urban settlement which is not part of the municipal district and the local governments which exercise the competence established by this Federal law issues of local significance of settlement and issues of local value of municipal area, and can also implement individual state powers transferred to local governments by Federal laws and laws of subjects of Russina Federation.

Intra-City Territory (Внутригородская Территория/ Vunutrigarodskaya Territoriya): Part of the territory of the city of Federal significance, within the boundaries of which local self-government is carried out by the population directly and (or) through elected and other local self-government bodies.[39]

In the Article 15 of Federal law the duties of local self-government are specified. Their subjects include:

  • Establishing, approving, implementing and controlling the implementation of the local budget;
  • Creation, modification and cancellation of local taxes and settlement fees;
  • Ownership, use and disposal of municipal-owned property of the local area;
  • To cooperate with local self-government bodies;
  • To be able to quickly provide the services needed for the welfare of the people.[40]

In view of these issues, it can be said that the central government has adopted a more decentralized approach on the budget. There are two different reasons behind this. The first is that it is easier to collect and classify taxes locally with local self-government directly interacting with the region. The second is that local self-government managers, who are directly elected by the public, will be able to regulate spendings acoording to wishes of citizens and desires more effectively in line with the budget, so that they will be concerned about votes while providing public services.[41] When examined in practice, it is observed that the center has an influence on local governments within the scope of finance, politics and execution.

Federated units supervise the finances of local self-government. Local governments have three different financial resources. The first is through the management of the resources they own, the second is the taxes allowed by the Federated unit and the third is the resources transferred directly by the center.[42]

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CENTRAL AND LOCAL IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

In the Russian Federation, which has introduced a unique federal system, the relationship between the central and local is such that it is almost similar compared to the unitary states. Although there are many reasons for this, historical heritage and demographic diversity are the main reasons for this. In this context, the center is dominant when the federal agreement signed in 1992 examines the sharing of authority between the center and the local. The Centre has also been granted exceptional powers in line with this agreement. These can be increased as foreign relations, energy, finance, communications, transport, defence and security issues etc.[43]

The Russian Federation has shown a trend of regionalization, especially by the year 2000. In contrast to this policy, after 2000, it tended to be centralised. Behind this, the influence of Putin’s leadership is inevitable. These centralization moves are seen as the only solution that can be implemented, although it is thought that democratic principles are being undermined in order to ensure stability.

Another important relationship between central and local is about financial matters. The budget obtained from the federated units is reorganized and given to the other federated units in need in the form of subsidized or project fund support. It also provides direct financial assistance to Local Self-Governments.[44]

Finally, Federation divided the country into eight different units (Federal Okrug) in order to directly exert its influence on the local area, making federated units subordinate to them. He increased control of the center by appointing a direct governor to head each unit.

CONCLUSION

The state is organized to protect the people from external threats, to raise the welfare level of the people and to ensure its continuity, and also to ensure the security of the people within itself. If the whole of the organization or planned actions for a purpose means administration and the state is organized for the purposes mentioned above, it is called state administration. It is necessary to examine the state administration on a central and local level. The Russian Federation, which has been examined in this context in the article, has transitioned to the administrative tradition in the modern sense during the reign of Peter the first. The Federation, which went through very different processes when it was evaluated in the USSR period, took its present form together with the 1993 constitution in administrative terms.

The central administration of the Russian Federation has strong powers according to a federation. These powers were specifically summed up on the President. Traditionally, Russia regulates its policies within the framework of the effectiveness of a strong leader. The greater effectiveness of the center can be based on many reasons. The two most important reasons are concerns arising from the historical heritage element and demographic diversity. Centralization has increased further in the era of President Putin after 2000.

When looking at local government in the Russian Federation it is possible to divide it into two stages. The first phase is the federated units, which are the political units, while the second phase is the local self-government. The concept of local self-government for the Russian Federation is unique to him. The most important reason for this is the creation and election of governments by the people. Local self-government, especially budget, education, health, etc. he has authority in such areas.

Even if the traditional centralist relationship within the context of the central and local relationship causes the Russian Federation to receive criticism within the context of democratic principles, it is also seen as the only way to achieve stability.

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  10. Gözübüyük Şeref, Yönetim Hukuku, Ankara 1999, Turhan Kitabevi Yayınları.
  11. Güler Birgül Ayman, Yerel Yönetimler – Liberal Açıklamalara Eleştirel Yaklaşım, Ankara 2006, İmge Kitapevi Yayınları.
  12. Kurat Akdes Nimet, Rusya Tarihi- Başlangıçtan 1917’ye Kadar, Ankara 1987, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi.
  13. “Конституция (Основной закон) СССР в редакции от 5 декабря 1936 г.”, https://constitution.garant.ru/history/ussr-rsfsr/1936/red_1936/3958676/ .
  14. “Конституция (Основной закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик
    (принята на внеочередной седьмой сессии Верховного Совета СССР девятого созыва 7 октября 1977 г.)”, https://constitution.garant.ru/history/ussr-rsfsr/1977/.
  15. “Конституция (Основной Закон) Российской Социалистической Федеративной Советской Республики”, https://constitution.garant.ru/history/ussr-rsfsr/1918/.
  16. Конституция Рoссийской Фeдерации (Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii), http://www.constitution.ru/10003000/10003000-4.htm.
  17. Lee Stephen, Aspect of European History 1494-1789, Routledge
  18. Mican Osman, The Collapse Of Sovıets: Glasnost And Perestroıka, İstanbul 2017, İlim ve Medeniyet, https://www.ilimvemedeniyet.com/the-collapse-of-soviets-glasnost-and-perestroika.html.
  19. Natig Abdullayev, Demokratikleşme Sorunsalı Çerçevesinde Rusya’da Hükümet Şekli Üzerine, İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Kamu Yönetimi Anabilim Dalı, Doktora Tezi, İstanbul 2008.
  20. “Российская Федерация Федеральный Закон Об Общих Принципах Организации Местного Самоуправления В Российской Федерации”, https://www.yabloko.ru/municipal/zakon/fz131.
  21. Reed John, Dünyayı Sarsan 10 Gün, Çev.: Rasih Güran, İstanbul 2006, Yordam Kitap Basın ve Yayın Tic. Ltd. Şti.
  22. Sadioğlu Uğur, Erdinçler Rahmi Erkut, Tarihsel Perspektiften Geleceğe, Yerel Yönetimler Bağlamında Rus Kamu Yönetiminde Güncel Reformların Analizi, Memleket Siyaset Yönetim (MSY) Dergisi, C.: 13/S.: 29, 2018, S.61-82.

FOOTNOTES

[1] Istanbul Medeniyet University Political Science and Public Administration 4. Class Student

[2] Kemal Gözler, Devletin Genel Teorisi, Bursa 2007, Ekin Kitabevi Yayınları, s.4-9.

[3] Şeref Gözübüyük, Yönetim Hukuku, Ankara 1999, Turhan Kitabevi Yayınları, s.1.

[4] Kemal Gözler, İdare Hukukuna Giriş, Bursa 2012, Ekin Kitabevi Yayınları, s.31-32.

[5] Kemal Gözler, Gürsel Kaplan, İdare Hukuku Dersleri, Bursa 2018, Ekin Kitabevi Yayınları, s.47.

[6] Kemal Gözler, Mahalli İdareler Hukuku, Bursa 2018, Ekin Kitabevi Yayınları, s.72-88.

[7] Akdes Nimet Kurat, Rusya Tarihi- Başlangıçtan 1917’ye Kadar, Ankara 1987, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, s.267-268.

[8] John Reed, Dünyayı Sarsan 10 Gün, Çev.: Rasih Güran, İstanbul 2006, Yordam Kitap Basın ve Yayın Tic. Ltd. Şti., s.10.

[9] “Конституция (Основной Закон) Российской Социалистической Федеративной Советской Республики”, https://constitution.garant.ru/history/ussr-rsfsr/1918/, (Erişim Tarihi: 09.01.2020)

[10] Юрий Семёнов, Из истории теоретической разработки В. И. Лениным национального вопроса, Скепсис, https://scepsis.net/library/id_2670.html (Erişim Tarihi:08.01.2020)

[11]“Конституция (Основной закон) СССР в редакции от 5 декабря 1936 г.”, https://constitution.garant.ru/history/ussr-rsfsr/1936/red_1936/3958676/ , (Erişim Tarihi: 08.01.2020)

[12] Bu kavram hem ekonomide karar verici ve dominant zümre olan oligarkları tanımlamak için hem de politikada SSCB döneminde devlet ile iç içe geçmiş olan partinin karar verici ve dominant olan iç parti üyeleri zümresini ifade etmektedir.

[13]“Конституция (Основной закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик
(принята на внеочередной седьмой сессии Верховного Совета СССР девятого созыва 7 октября 1977 г.)”, https://constitution.garant.ru/history/ussr-rsfsr/1977/, (Erişim Tarihi: 07.01.2020)

[14] Osman Mican, The Collapse Of Sovıets: Glasnost And Perestroıka, İstanbul 2017, İlim ve Medeniyet, https://www.ilimvemedeniyet.com/the-collapse-of-soviets-glasnost-and-perestroika.html, (Erişim Tarihi: 11.01.2020)

[15] Конституция Рoссийской Фeдерации (Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii), http://www.constitution.ru/10003000/10003000-4.htm, Madde 14, (Erişim Tarihi: 20.12.2019)

[16] Natig Abdullayev, Demokratikleşme Sorunsalı Çerçevesinde Rusya’da Hükümet Şekli Üzerine, İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Kamu Yönetimi Anabilim Dalı, Doktora Tezi, İstanbul 2008, s.122

[17] Age, s.106-107.

[18] [18]Конституция Рoссийской Фeдерации (Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii), http://www.constitution.ru/10003000/10003000-4.htm, Madde 80-93, (Erişim Tarihi: 20.12.2019)

[19] Конституция Рoссийской Фeдерации (Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii), http://www.constitution.ru/10003000/10003000-4.htm, Madde 110-117, (Erişim Tarihi: 20.12.2019)

[20] [20]“Федеральный закон от 5 декабря 1995 г. N 192-ФЗ “О порядке формирования Совета Федерации Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации”,http://base.garant.ru/1518431/#ixzz6Ai2bp91X, (Erişim Tarihi: 01.01.2020)

[21] Федеральный закон от 5 августа 2000 г. N 113-ФЗ “О порядке формирования Совета Федерации Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации”,http://base.garant.ru/182380/#ixzz6AjbgoOmV, (Erişim Tarihi: 01.01.2020)

[22] Конституция Рoссийской Фeдерации (Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii), http://www.constitution.ru/10003000/10003000-4.htm, Madde 2, (Erişim Tarihi: 20.12.2019)

[23] Конституция Рoссийской Фeдерации (Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii), http://www.constitution.ru/10003000/10003000-4.htm, Madde 4, (Erişim Tarihi: 20.12.2019)

[24] Конституция Рoссийской Фeдерации (Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii), http://www.constitution.ru/10003000/10003000-4.htm, Madde 102-109, (Erişim Tarihi: 20.12.2019)

[25] Stephen Lee, Aspect of European History 1494-1789, Routledge 1978, s.27-29.

[26] Birgül Ayman Güler, Yerel Yönetimler – Liberal Açıklamalara Eleştirel Yaklaşım, Ankara 2006, İmge Kitapevi Yayınları, s.149-154.

[27] Fulya Akyıldız, Rusya’da Yerel Yönetimler, Ed. Mustafa Okçu ve Hüseyin Özgür, Dünyada Yerel Yönetimler Örnekler-Uygulamalar, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara 2013, s.549.

[28] “Федеральный закон от 28 августа 1995 г. N 154-ФЗ “Об общих принципах организации местного самоуправления в Российской Федерации”, http://base.garant.ru/3960984/#ixzz6AZpXFXIW, (Erişim Tarihi: 25.12.2019)

[29] “Федеральный Закон От 6 Октября 2003 Г. N 131-ФЗ “Об Общих Принципах Организации Местного Самоуправления В Российской Федерации”, http://base.garant.ru/186367/ , (Erişim Tarihi: 26.12.2019)

[30] Федеральный закон от 11 апреля 1998 г. N 55-ФЗ “О ратификации Европейской хартии местного самоуправления”, http://ivo.garant.ru/#/document/2559224/paragraph/11:0, (Erişim Tarihi: 25.12.2019)

[31] Republic of Adygeya, Republic of Altai, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Daghestan, Republic of Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Republic of Kalmykia, Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, Republic of Karelia, Komi Republic, Republic of Crimea, Republic of Mari El, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of North Ossetia – Alania, Republic of Tatarstan, Republic of Tuva, Udmurtian Republic, Republic of Khakassia, Chechen Republic, Chuvash Republic

[32] Amur Region, Arkhangelsk Region, Astrakhan Region, Belgorod Region, Bryansk Region, Chelyabinsk Region, Ivanovo Region, Irkutsk Region, Kaliningrad Region, Kaluga Region, Kemerovo Region, Kirov Region, Kostroma Region, Kurgan Region, Kursk Region, Leningrad Region, Lipetsk Region, Magadan Region, Moscow Region, Murmansk Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Novgorod Region, Novosibirsk Region, Omsk Region, Orenburg Region, Orel Region, Penza Region, Pskov Region, Rostov Region, Ryazan Region, Samara Region, Saratov Region, Sakhalin Region, Sverdlovsk Region, Smolensk Region, Tambov Region, Tomsk Region, Tver Region, Tula Region, Tyumen Region, Ulyanovsk Region, Vladimir Region, Volgograd Region, Vologda Region, Voronezh Region, Yaroslavl Region

[33] Uğur Sadioğlu, Rahmi Erkut Erdinçler, Tarihsel Perspektiften Geleceğe, Yerel Yönetimler Bağlamında Rus Kamu Yönetiminde Güncel Reformların Analizi, Memleket Siyaset Yönetim (MSY) Dergisi, C.: 13/S.: 29, 2018, S.61-82.

[34] Altai Territory, Trans-Baikal Territory, Kamchatka Territory, Krasnodar Territory, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Perm Territory, Primorye Territory, Stavropol Territory, Khabarovsk Territory

[35] Nenets Autonomous Area, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area – Yugra, Chukotka Autonomous Area, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area

[36] Jewish Autonomous Region

[37] Moscow, St. Petersburg, Sevastopol

[38] “Информация о результатах проведения мониторинга исполнения местных бюджетов и межбюджетных отношений в субъектах Российской Федерации на региональном и муниципальном уровнях за 2018 год”, Министерство финансов Российской Федерации, https://www.minfin.ru/common/upload/library/2019/06/main/Rezultaty_provedeniya_monitoringa_mestnykh_budzhetov_za_2018_god.pdf, Москва 2019, (Erişim Tarihi: 16.12.2019)

[39] Российская Федерация Федеральный Закон Об Общих Принципах Организации Местного Самоуправления В Российской Федерации”, https://www.yabloko.ru/municipal/zakon/fz131, Madde 2, (Erişim Tarihi: 18.12.2019)

[40] Российская Федерация Федеральный Закон Об Общих Принципах Организации Местного Самоуправления В Российской Федерации”, https://www.yabloko.ru/municipal/zakon/fz131, Madde 15, (Erişim Tarihi: 18.12.2019)

[41] Kathleen Dowlet, Local Government Transparency in East Central Europe, Local Governments Studies, C.: 32/S.: 5, 2006, s. 563-583.

[42] Jale Akhundova, Rusya’da ve Türkiye’de Yerel Yönetimler Reformunun Karşılaştırılması, Turkish International Cooperation and Coordination Agency, Avrasya Etüdleri, 2014, s.51.

[43] Age, s.52.

[44] Jale Akhundova, Rusya’da ve Türkiye’de Yerel Yönetimler Reformunun Karşılaştırılması, İstanbul Üniversitesi Avrasya Enstitüsü, Avrasya İncelemeleri Dergisi (AVİD), C.:1/ S.:2, 2012, s.70-75.

 

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Osman MİCAN

İstanbul Medeniyet Üniversitesi-SBKY dunyasubayi@gmail.com İLİM ''MEDENİYET''TİR.

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