The issue of the energy security has a momentous importance in global energy market. After the Industry Revolution, the colonialist states begun a quest for flow of production. On the one hand, the states were increasing their production, on the other hand, they were try to ensure energy security. Because, production of the industrial age has need energy.
Since the Industrial Revolution, the process is the same. In today, all of the states have to ensure energy security for production and resolve the negative impact of other production on economy. Reasons such as increase of needs and technological developments, the states have increased and diversified their energy sources. Likewise, energy consumption is also changing. The transition of energy is an example for this issue.
Turkey is a country trying to develop the industry. Therefore, the issue of energy security is crucial for Turkey. Because of the strategic location, Turkey has an important role on global energy security. It is close to the production and consumption locations. Turkey carries petroleum and natural gas from the Middle East and the Caucasus to consumption points.
Turkey is dependent on energy because of the inadequate domestic energy resources. Turkey’s energy while moving, energy that would be needed is imported from the Middle East and the Caucasus. Turkey’s energy dependence, energy security is put in jeopardy.
Every moment that may occur, because of such reasons political crises, natural disasters, wars, terrorist attacks, and embargos Turkey’s flow of energy can interrupt. In this case, Turkey’s production and the economy will leave the poor. It will have effects such as inflation, unemployment, increase of the taxes, and etc.
In this case, apparently, Turkey must ensure its energy security. In this context, I will prepare an energy security strategy plan for ensure energy security of Turkey. The plan discourses on three key issues. The issues are these; diversification of the energy sources, diversification of the exporter countries, and research and development on renewable sources.
- Diversification of the Energy Sources
“The limits of Turkey’s domestic energy sources in light of its growing energy demand have resulted in dependency on energy imports, primarily of oil and gas. At present, around 25% of the total energy demand is being met by domestic resources, while the rest is being provided from a diversified portfolio of imports.” (Source: mfa.gov.tr)
Turkey is a country dependent on production to oil and gas. On the one hand, Turkey imports nearly 99% of the natural gas it consumes, on the other hand, Turkey imports around 89% of its oil supplies, in 2015 (Source: MENR). Current, primary energy demand is met by natural gas (35%), coal (28.5%), oil (27%), hydro (7%), and other renewables (2.5%) (Source: EMRA).
The statistics are a critical level for Turkey. Therefore, Turkey has to decrease its share of coal, oil and natural gas in the production, and it must shift to alternative energy sources.
- Diversification of the Exporters Countries
On the one hand, Turkey imported 25 million tons of crude oil mainly from Iraq (45,6%), Iran (22,4%), Russia (12,4%), Saudi Arabia (9,6%), Colombia (3,5%), Kazakhstan (2,6%) and Nigeria (2,1%), in 2015 (Source : ETBK). On the other hand, over the last decade, Turkey has been the second country, after China, in terms of natural gas demand growth. In 2015, Turkey imported around 51 bcm of gas. 58% of the natural gas is imported from Russia, followed by Iran with 18%, Azerbaijan (12%), Algeria (7,7%) and Nigeria (2,4%). (Source: ETBK)
As shown, the majority of Turkey’s oil and gas imports depend on certain countries. The means that the energy security of Turkey depends on its relations with these countries. Therefore, deterioration of Turkey’s relations with those countries, energy security will be jeopardized.
There are examples of deterioration of relations, the most recent example, Turkey attacked the Russian war jet. For this reason, a major crisis has been between Turkey and Russia. Currently, this situation is not a danger on energy security of Turkey, but it is not known what will happen in the next. Because of such reasons as political crises, natural disasters, wars, terrorist attacks, and embargos Turkey’s relations could be deteriorated with exporter countries. Also in this case the, the Turkey’s flow of energy can interrupt.
Turkey’s position in this process to be followed diversification of the importer counties and consolidate to energy agreements with the countries.
- Research and Development on Renewable Sources
Because of the, environmentally hazardous substances -especially the oil- the countries have led to alternative energy sources. Solar energy, wind energy, wave energy, biomass energy, geothermal energy, hydropower and hydrogen energy is a renewable energy resource that are used currently. For some reasons the sources have attracted the interest of the countries. For example, less environmentally damaging and renewable.
Turkey has a great potential in terms of renewable energy. For example, it ranks 7th in the world with geothermal potential. Due to geographical location, Turkey can use the renewable energy sources. In terms of, having a greater number of sunny days Turkey has great opportunity for solar energy.
Hydropower is cheap, clean and renewable energy sources. The most part of Turkey’s rivers flows through the ravine, because of her high and rugged lands. This situation creates favorable conditions for the construction of the dam. The hydroelectric potential in Turkey ranks 3rd in Europe after Russia and Norway.
Turkey also has important potentials and opportunities in other renewable energy sources. The tend of Turkey’s on renewable energy resources, on the one hand, renewable energy sources will be alternative sources of energy, on the other hand, the energy security of Turkey will be reliable with domestic sources.