STRUCTURAL REALISM AND NEOLIBERAL INSTITUTIONALISM

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Neorealism or Structural Realism is an approach pioneered carried out by Kenneth Waltz. The essence of Kenneth Waltz’s structural realism explains the unchanging structure of the states system. On the other hand, neo liberal institutionalism takes a stand against structural realism.

Neo liberal institutionalism defends that, states can find a solution for the problem of international anarchy and collective actions. Additionally, the state can chance the international system. Neo liberal institutionalism is not based structure, it is a doer centered approach. Neo liberal institutionalism is established on realist thesis and it try to get liberal results.

On the other hand, founding father of structural realism Waltz who explains the states system with three factors; anarchy, power and functional similarity. In the system, distribution of power and position of power are determinant for the states.

According to structural realists, the basic factor of structure of international system is the distribution of power. When the structural realists put a name to structure of international system, they accentuate concepts such as unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar. They try to explain interstate relations and structure of current relations with the distribution of power.

Otherwise, other theorists of liberal views as Michael W. Doyle, John w. Burton, Robert O. Keohane, Joseph S. Nye try to explain based on the activities of structure of international system, the position of international organizations with world public opinion, non-governmental organizations. The liberalists reject the power of the realist concept. Realists express international system with power, in spite of this, liberalist express international system as transnational relations, democratic approach, mutual dependence.

According to structural realists, great powers have three principles, and the principles is based on the foundation of structural realism: military, economic and political capacities, passing mention their allies’ capabilities, policies on the international system.

Structural realists defend that, the actors and the relations between the actors set the system, and states, non-state actors and the relations between non-state actors set international system. At the same time, should be known two factors for define a system: Qualifications of actors and the form of relations between actors.

Structural realists define great power as a state with a large capacity. In other word, great powers has military, economic and politic power and they adopt policies globally.

As a result on the structural realism, a state need three basic principles to be identified as the great power. 1) Significant degree of economic, the capacity of military, political, etc. 2) the ability of influence on the allied, 3) beyond the national interest, to pursue policies globally.

On the other hand, in conclusion on neoliberal institutionalism, the thinkers say that international cooperation is possible that in anarchy environment, and a stable international cooperation may become evident conjunction with in the absence of hegemonic actors and external threats. Accordingly, cooperation be manifested with political elites expect interest behalf state. If the state believe, mutual interests is formed from the cooperation, corporations (common institutions) will become evident.

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Nasrettin GÜNEŞ

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