THE COLLAPSE OF SOVIETS: GLASNOST AND PERESTROIKA

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            USSR (Union of Soviets Socialist Republics) had marked its name to 20.century with its existance up until its collapse with October  Revolution  at 1991 by becaming against to the unipolar World system of the US. Soviets had prepared its collapse from the day when it had established by confronting different types of processes.In shortly it digged its grave itself. The pixcax which had digged grave was ‘’Perestroika’’ and  showel  that take out the soil was ‘’Glastnost’’.

Soviets had established at 7 October 1917 with a proleteriat revolution –October Revolution- by the ledership of Lenin(Vernadsky,2010:360). Revolution mainly had depended on the ideology of Marxist understanding. When Lenin had understood the low percent of possibilty to reach industrial proleteriat had changed the basics of Marxism. He had reproduce Marxist-Leninist ideology by changing the industrial proleteriat with labourers who were laboring with agriculture and revolution had occured(Divitçioğlu, 1976:55).After the revolution the main actors of revolution who  were labourers had been away from the  administration instead of agglomorative participation. The upper crust of them  had handled the the administration under  the Communist Party.This situation had caused the division of people who had rised their fists and waved flag together into two as labourers and administrators.This situation caused the secession of labourers from administration. First problems had exposed at the beginning of the revolution like that. Important thing here was a person who has citizienship feelings wants to effect the state’s decision taking organs within the scope of his ideological frames but the depolitization at first period had revealed not taking decision for survival of their state. That had caused the alienation of the citizens from state and ideology easyly. Also the straitening  of the administration at the period of NEP(New Economic Politic-Novaya Ekonommiçeskaya Palitik)  had increased alienation(Vernadsky,2010: 388). Then at the maintained process administration had strained from party tools up until the person by ‘’Great Purge’’. The top point of the political alienation of the labourers had shaped by the atachment of the state and the security organs to himself during the period of ‘’Great Patriotic War’’(Ilgaz ,2010:).

In the Soviets there were economical problems beside the political alienation while Soviets had taken steps to the collapse. Soviets had became tired economically from Cold War up until the Détente period.At this period Soviets had relaxed for a short period of time. of the this period this had not became sufficient .At 1979 which was finishing of this period some problems had started to seem because of the hard prevent of the USA(Sözmezoğlu, 2017: 37-48) .

All states will collapse this is inevitable.If we see states as human this collapsing process might understood well.Human immune system becomes defensless when human starts to be older.For preventing this situation takes medicines.Medicines only delays the inevitable end of human. States makes  reforms for delaying its inevitable collapse.600 year old Ottoman Empire is the best example for us about that topic.

Like Ottoman Empire  Soviets had to control its situation that they were at that process or not and if it was had to take precoutions.This precaution had taken properly at the period of Mihail Gorbachev. Mihail Gorbachev had seen the Soviets bad situation.He had started reforms without slowing down at 1985 with the belief of the resurrection.Firstly Gorbachev had propounded Perestroika ‘’Restructuring’’which was economic reform.Perestroika was strike made to fusty socialist economy system and last step and alternative for the development of this system (Gorbachev,1988: 49-58).

Well, What had Gorbachev accounted with Perestroika?

With Perestroika Gorbachev had aimed  speeding up of the static economical system and with that new move increasing technological development  and intensive growth for overcoming  the negativenesses and hardnesses which had been experiencing since 1980.Like (Yalçıner,1988:) said ‘’They had facilitated lots of thing from  the increasing authoritization of the factory managers in face of the central planning, being authoritisized and decentralization about price, amount of production, source of finance and flow of the funds, looking out for self-financing  and profit principle and fastening everything to that, equity participation, hiring of the managements and soils, co-investment of managements with foreign investors,decrasing of the labourers, giving permition to family-owned businesses to give permition to requestor  Soviet  citizens who were individual or group  hiring of diffrernt types of managements and manage it by himself’’.In shortly socialist economy were starting to leave its place at the economy to capitalism slowly(Canşen,2011:79-88).

This pollitical changes had confront with opposition though decisions had passed from congress easyly.They had started to take some precautions to the oppositions.Gorbachev had thought that they only could overcome of this problem by expediting devices (Dzirkals,1990: 35-39).

Most suitable expediting device against to opposition activities had decided as Glasnost ‘’Openness’’.Main aim of the Glasnost was to broke the bureokratic elitism which made gangrene the by saving the state from a narrow place like congress where  decision were taken . This could occur only with the participation of the citizens. Gorbachev had wanted to make citizens closer to state.He had aimed to put them in deciding period, contribute ideological freedom for providing much more reliability on the state.Other point which we have to focus on was Glasnost which had planned to break the opposition to Perestroika.The meaning of this was with the success of Glasnost, Perestroka would be beneficial to state.These two study which define the destiny of each other, were carrying a risk at the same time.However this was the last branch to hold for Soviets whose one leg had already been in the hollow.

Process of passing Perestroika was so painful and citizens had not stood on that. Soviets had entered the collapsing period when political and social freedoms could not  find response in economy. Thus  the last branch had broken because of the weight of the Soviets.

The biggest faults of the Soviets at this period about reforms which were continued against to accounted results were;

-There were any reform about the problems of labourers who were the main actors of the revolution,

-There were any improvement activity about the labourers ideologies and lives

-They had not observed to needs of the socialism which was the establishing policy

-They had attached the solution of the alienation to state with capitalism and meta relations at all taken bureokratic steps

Shortly, Soviets had finished its mission like every country who had stamped to world history becuse of unsufficiency on producing solutions to problems which had came one after the other..It had collapsed at 26 December 1991 with the resign of Mikhail Gorbacov.Instead of him Boris Yeltsin had taken the lead.After the collapse of the Soviet Union most of statae from Turkistan and East Europe had declared their independences.The Soviets which had extraordinary surface had shrinked up until its national borders but had maintained its existance.

OSMAN MİCAN

SOURCES

Divitçioğlu, S.(1976).‘’Ekim Devrimi Üzerine’’ ,Birikim Dergisi, Sayı: 15,  pp. 55

Dzirkals,L.(1990).Glasnost And Soviets Foreign Policy.Santa Monica: The Rand Corporation

Gorbachev,M.(1988).Perestroika. London: Fontana

Ilgaz,S.(2010).http://kurtulussosyalistdergi.awardspace.com/KSD/13/03.htm,1 Eylül 2017 tarihinde erişildi.

Sözmezoğlu, F.(2017) .Uluslararası İlişkilere Giriş. İstanbul: Der Yayınevi

Vernadsky, G.(2010).Rusya Tarihi. Çev. E. Ç. Mızrak- D. Mızrak. İstanbul: Selenge Yayınları

Yalçıner,M.(1988).https://ozgurlukdunyasi.org/arsiv/477-sayi-003/2348-gorbacov-demokratizminin-icerigi-ve-etkileri-uzerine-2-sosyalizmden-tam-kopus-perestroika-sscbde-kapitalizmin-batililasmasi, 2 Eylül 2017 tarihinde erişildi.

 

Yazar Hakkında

Osman Mican

İstanbul Medeniyet Üniversitesi-SBKY
dunyasubayi@gmail.com
İLİM ”MEDENİYET”TİR.

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