‘Fuat! Günde kaç saat çalışıyorsun?’ Vereceği rakamın tesirinden emin olan Sezgin tereddütsüz ş şöyle der: ‘ On yedi saat hocam!’ Yüzünü ekşiten Helmut Ritter ‘ Günde on yedi saat çalışarak âlim âlim olamazsın Fuat’ diye karşılık verince şaşıran Sezgin: ‘Peki. Hocam! Âlim olmam için günde K kaç saat çalışmam gerekiyor?’ diye sorar. Ritter’in yanıtı ilginç bir o kadar da çarpıcıdır:‘Benim h hocam günde yirmi altı saat çalışırdı; ben yirmi beş saat çalışıyorum; senin de âlim olmak için gü günde en az yirmi dört saat çalışman gerek’ Fuat Sezgin konuşmasına şöyle devam etti: ‘ Yakın za zamana kadar hocamın bu tavsiyesine uyarak günde yirmi dört saat çalıştım.’
‘Bir hareketin bütün şartları, meydana gelmeden önce verilmiş olduğu için, hareket bu şartlar tarafından tayin edilmiş bulunuyor. ’
Germany: The Impact of the Past
In German’s vocabulary, when we look at the German History which was used as emperorship from point of concept of Reich; firstly, we can clearly see area where is between Alps and Baltic Sea, and made wars for ages. The area that was kept lowland of North Europe, ridden from east to West all the times. This situation laid the groundwork mutual interaction of different ethnic groups. In this meaning, it is possible to face with this question: Who is Germans? We can clearly see that ‘contrary to Nazi race theory, the Germans are as much an ethnic mixture as any people in Europe, maybe more. The original Germans identified by the Romans were a collection of several barbarian tribes, some of which became Romanized.’ On the other understanding, many Germans tried to find place with the migration of tribes to take refuge in themselves. ‘Soon Germanic tribes were roaming through and destroying the Roman Empire, eventually settling in various parts of it.’ Holy Roman Empire was found on the same geography with the Roman Empire, and Holy Roman Empire was impressed from Roman Empire, because they thought that is successor of Roman Empire. ‘When in 800 the Frankish king Charlemagne ( German: Karl der Grosse ) was crowned in Rome, he called his gigantic realm the Holy Roman Empire.’ Coronating of pope was the example of uniting effect of religion on the politic. We can understanding that Roskin felt uncomfortable about the situation from his expression ‘he called his gigantic realm the Holy Roman Empire.’ After the ending of 1. Reich Era, We came across Otto Von Bismarck term as 2. Reich Era. Roskin refer that Bismarck’s the most dangerous heritage is his foreign policy. However, he added that Bismarck din not follow expansionist policy. If Bismanrck’s foreign policy that is characterised by a bad heritage was not misunderstood by his successors, in the contrary case, it will be easy to contrast with himself or it is able to be understood clearly that he thought, When Germany secured uniformity, it caused troubled to all of world. During 2. Reich, German intellectuals was talking about concept of Volkgeist that is combination of Volk and Geist words, and they emphised that soul of Germanic clans is master race from the other clans. German geographers invented term of Lebensraum, they submitted that Germany deserve more land. When we think reasons of 1. World War with this understanding, it is possible to see Germany’s share of reasons in the Germany’s policy of colonial competition. At this stage, ‘the Germans, keeping in mind their quick victories of half a century earlier, marched joyously off to war.’ In early August of 1914 the Kaiser told his troops: ‘You will be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees.’ 189 Especially, IWW was on Ottoman Empire’s lands, and many Germans din not see anything about the war, so they did nor believe defeat. Because of created bad image, they bandied about Dolchstoss that is meant backstabbing. However, after the Napoleonic epoch in Europe, France was humiliated, because Napoleon could born again, but it will not be possible to say same situation for Germany. Germans were imposed 33 billion dolars war indemnity and heavier articles of agreement with Versailles Treaty. Like Versailles, they were imposed republic regime. However, they could not pay war indemnity, and unlimited coined money,so German’s economy went bankrupt with hiperinflation. and increasing unemployment and hard conditions of Versailles caused that Nazi Party came into the power. Soon after, German society created Adolf Hitler to indignity as a reaction. After Adolf Hitler came into power, Autobahns were built by looking at employer hollow and fill hollow again to employ. In that period, Nazi Party was sanctuary, because people feel suffocated from the unemployment. ‘For some, memnership in the Nazi party offered better jobs and sometimes snappy uniforms.’
Hitler called this period as 3. Reich. The German foreign policy get into motion with coming into power. Hitler’s foreign policy developed in three process. ( 1- Versay zincirlerinin kırılması, yani Almanya’nın Versay’ın kayıtlamalarından kurtarılması. 2- Ein Volk, Ein Reich: Bir Millet, Bir Devlet ilkesinin gerçekleştirilmesi ve bir tek devlet altında toplanması. 3- Lebensraum: Hayat Sahası. Bu Nazi Emperyalizminin adı idi. Hitler Almanya’sı Almanların yaşamadığı birçok memleketi de kendi sınırları içine katma yoluna gidecektir.) ‘1- breaking chain of Versailles, it means that is keeping from Versailles. 2- Ein Volk, Ein Reich: one nation one state 3- Lebensraum: Life space. It was name Nazi Imperialism. Hitler Germany try to add borders where Germans do not live.’ When we look at the foreign policy, Hitler started first job by refreshing the army. England and France came out victorious from I. World War, but they did not anything against Hitler. Thus, Hitler strengthen one’s hand. When we look at the Hitler’s ‘Ein Volk, Ein Reich’ understanding, his solution ( Final solution ) was not something else from genocide.
After II.World War, East Germany and West Germany united with the pulling down the Berlin Wall that was meant ending of Cold War. In the progressive chapter, integrated process of East Germany, West Block and how germany was succesfull will been analysed.
Germany: The Key Institutions
‘In 1949, the founders of the Federal Republic of Germany were hopeful that the east and West sections of their country would be reunified.’ 197 As known Federal Germany, West Germany could not make Berlin capital city, because the wind of communism blowing with Cold War in the Berlin. Until the Berlin Wall was pulled down, Federal Germany made Bonn capital city. When we look at the Bonn city, it is possible to see affected side from West Block. At that times, Berlin was strange situation. The city was managed by four occupying Powers in name, but USSR(union of soviet socialist republics) made East Berlin capital city of East Germany in 1949. After years, East-West Germany united, and Federal Rebuplic of Germany has sixteen lander.
The President: ‘Germany’s federal president (Bundesprasident) is the classic Europen president, a figurehead with few political but many symbolic duties.’ The president is the ‘head of state’ rather than ‘chief of government’, and as such receives new foreign ambassadors who present their credentials to him rather than to people they will actually be working with, the chancellor and foreign minister. In addition, the president proclaims laws after they have been passed by parliament, dissolves the Bundestag upon the chancellor’s request, and appoints and dismisses the chancellor after the leading party has told him. In Short, the German president is to use Bagehot’s terms, a ‘dignified’ rather than ‘efficient’ part of government.
The Chancellor: ‘Germany has a weak president but astrong chancellor. Unlike the changing chancellorsof the Weimar Republic, the FRG chancellorship has been a stable and durable office. Part of the reason fort his that the basic law requires the Bundestag to simultaneously vote in a new chancellor if it wants to vote out the present one.’ This reform ende done of the worst problems of parliamentary goverments, namely, their dependence on an often-fickle legislative majority. ‘Konrad Adenauer, a tough, shrewd politician who helped found the Federal Republic and served as chancellor during its first fourteen years. First occupants, such as Washington in the American presidency, can put a stamp on the position, defining its powers and setting its syle for generations.’ He determined permissions and decision making mechanis, because he was first the chancellor.
The Cabinet: The German cabinet is smaller than French or British. As is usual in Europe, these ministries are added, deleted, combined split, reshufled from one cabinet to another. For example, the previous Schröder cabinet had seperate economy and labor ministries. Schröder combined into a new superministry to fight unemployment.
The Bundestag: Konrad Adenauer, the authoritarian democrat, did not place great faith in the Bundestag. Germany never had a strong parliamentary tradition. In addition to this situation, many Germans still do not respect the Bundestag very much. ‘The Bundestag has at least 598 members but usually gets additional deputies and now totals 603. Deputies are elected for four years and paid $89000 a year.’ ‘One interesting point about the Bundestag is its relatively high number of women members, about a quarter, typical of North European systems that use proportional representation, which allows parties to place women candidates on party lists. Over 40 percent of Sweden’s parliamentarians are women.’
The Constitutional Court: In very few countries countries is the judiciary equal in power to the legislative or executive branches. The United States and Germany are two; both allow the highest court in the land to review the constitutionality of laws. The Federal Constitutional Court lacated in Karlsruhe, and was set up in 1951 partly on American insistence. ‘ The American occupiers reasoned that something like the Supreme Court would help prevent another Hitler.’ The Karlsruhe court is composed of sixteen judges, eight elected by each house of parliament, who serve for nonrenewable, twelve-year terms.
Germany’s ‘ TWO-PLUS’ Party System: Much of the reason the FRG government Works rather well is the party system that has evolved since 1949. The Weimar Reichstag suffered from extreme multiparism; a dozen parties, some of them extremist, made forming stable coalitions difficult. When the system is analysed, we can see that a two-plus party system is somewhere between a two-party system and a multiparty system.
The Bundesrat: The uniter systems do not have an upper house, but ‘the German federal system has useful upper house, the Bundesrat. Not as powerful as the U.S. Senate an upper house that powerful is a World rarity – the Bundesrat represents the sixteen Lander and has equal power with the Bundesrat on legislation that affects state affairs, including finances.’
German Political Culture
When we analysed German politic culture, we can see the effect of imposed republic regime, like Versailles. In even solving daily problems, some people needed to say what Germans do without a tremor. In Germany, the starting of democracy was such a thing. If the other European countries are analised; the democracy gained a victory step by step in England. In France, the democracy swayed up and down. German’s democracy was crushed by othoritarian powers. On the other hand, the democracy was tried to develop with communism in East Germany, but could not get ahead a lot.
The Moral Vacuum: The Nazi period left a moral vacuum in Germany, and filling it has been a long, slow process, one still not complete. One problem that hindered German democracy was the persistence of ex-Nazis in high places. Every time one was discovered, it undermined the moral authrity of the regime. People, especially young people, thought, ‘Why should we respect democracy if there are still the same old Nazis running it?’ , and they were right. After the war, many Nazis fleed abroad who are incriminated, some Nazis surrendered, some of them stayed on the task by helping occupying powers. At the same, time the Cold War delayed to judge war crimes. The occupying states dispensed with nuzzling of Germans, because they needed to Germans against USSR (union of soviet socialist republics).
The Remembrance of Things Past: ‘Can a society experience collective guilt? Was it realistic to expect Germans as a whole to feel remorse for what the Nazis did? The West German response was initially to flush the Nazi era down the memory hole, to say in effect, ‘Past, go away!’’ German fathers were reluctant to say much about what they had done. Similarly, the syllabus were prepared by thinking nothing of 1933-1945 years in German textbooks. However, made in American tv series and documentaries displayed Holocaust as a issue. Thus, many young German learned the situation by this way. Especially, many young started to feel themselves reactively, but people prefer to work, to forget experiences. People get wealth, and the welfare increased, but ‘the West German archetype became the Wunderkind ( wonder child ), the businessman who rose from rubble to riches in the postwar boom with a fat bady, a fat cigar, and a fat Mercedes. But material prosperity could not fill the moral and historical void.’ From a different viewpoint, German catholic writer refer that Germans meet face to face the their past. Under the communist rule East Germans, they met face to face by different way: ‘Deny it was their past. ‘We were not Nazis,’ taught the Communist regime, ‘We fought the Nazis. So we have nothing to be ashamed of or to regret. The Nazis are over there in West Germany.’’
The Generation Gap: When the experiences analised from point of youngs, they are the more open, free-spirited, democratic and European. Most younger Germans give unqualified allegience to democracy and European unity. ‘The younger generation has also freed up German society a great deal. No longer are German women confined to Kinder, Küche, Kirche (children, kitchen, church); most now work outside the home and participate in politics. German youngsters are not as obedient as they once were, and German fathers no longer beat them as in the old days. If democracy starts in the home, Germany now has a much better foundation for democracy.’
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