HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT NOTE’S – PLATO

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Plato (428?248 B.C.)

He is basically was a sentesis of the all old phliosopher. The best knowledge of the ideas through metal grassmate. We must almost be contemplation. His political and social thought that we always use. They always realize individual and society. We do not support society.They always look society as a whole. Philosophical look holist character. When we talk about plato  his three book important but the republic more popular than other actually. In his republic he mentioned and talked about ideal state. İt was first Utopia in philosophy. Ideal is the best there is no like this state. It is just a principle. He put state as an ideal state. He also put some assumption in his ideal state. He against the sophist. He argued that the society is not a personal or social construct. The state is not a better of personal choice or not free will. It is the necessity. The society or state is no a contingent. It is natural necessity. Sophist argued that the state is a personal choice againstly the plato. He argued the society or collectivity already was there. It is necessarily was. The origin of the state for plato is the nature. In picture of Plato human beings necessarily social being. It is to say that human beings are not self sufficient. The society is not out put any convention.The society is out come of nature necessarily. We are naturally bind wit society.

According to  Plato the state is not only physically is also ethically necessity. Being a human being is also in the need of ethical need. In order to real man we must operate the highest human sole it possible only with society not alone. You need social contacts to improve yourself. In this way the society and the state is not a contract or convention but it is a natural necessity. The society is constructed above the division of the labor.  Like we have different need so we have to made division of labor. In his ideal state he puts on these assumption first the origin of state or society is not contract or convention that is natural and human being are not self sufficient and they need each other. All the skill of member of society have to collect and after the collection all these people had to live natural hierarchy.

Some people are gold some people are silver, bronze and different. So they live for their value. In his society meritocrasic. He redistribute the society for their natural being. He talks about difference of human beings so he always keep who is get what or who will made the political decision and how? We are not going to get the advantage of sources. He is against egalitarianism. Because human beings are naturally different. Our position will naturally different. Social stratification is evitable. We are different creators.  We don’t want to benefit things we want to nature thing. In accordance of the with the difference human beings must perform to which they fit most. Therefore in his society the wise ones must be governor. The strong and brave ones must be soldier. If you lack two of them you are going to product. He regulate the organism. According the his point of the polis is an organic wall. The individual society is an part of organs like a hand of body. The governor is the head of body. ın this organism all the individual organ must to do their jobs. Otherwise the body cannot be work efficiently. As we do not our job we cannot improve anything. Only in this way we can complete as genious. We must serve the organism though our profession. Plato as not sexual discrimination. if you want be high valuable you must devote yourself in organism. He is also the first corporatist. He was collectivist.

Plato use human body as a metaphor. Like human body as a polish with different function. Writes on ideal state or polish based on justice. Raison Death the supremest virtues. Political community is also virtues. The supremest virtues is justice on society. According to ethics the norms is the highest that based on justice. For the seek of justice is all meanings. The mutual need of individuals that makes the polis actually. Therefore we associate naturally. They have to many attitudes. You have naturally attitudes. These are together with ethics. In order to satisfied the mutual you have to be together. Polish is a natural growth. That political community of the members capasities are the basic determent of the quality of the polish. Polish is not in the need of operate. It is natural just. To establish to govern an political community is in the need of godlike life. He identified there measures class rulers soldier and producers. That Nous Thumos and Soma. It is to say that the producer all these social classes correspond to thumos and soma. The Nous is prefer the Philosopher King or ruler that the supremest one. The philosopher king they have the virtue of the wisdom of the govern. Their basic function is to govern the society. Because they have the virtue of wisdom. He thinks that is alway is the need of skill of wisdom. Socrates also mention and he says you are not wise to govern. There are expected virtue and skill for their class. They must be govern. They are going to govern and legislate the society. They put legal rule for society. Legislation is racial legalization. Because they are racing enough for the polish. But this is monopolize way.

These are the official of polish. And they are not marry and private property they are banned in these. There is no room to these function. Because if they marry it will cause despotism. (Kayırmacılık) Nous is the highest like brain. Is the second layer there is soldiers this the Thumous that they ar the guarding of them is to guard of the political community.  They made scrutiny. Expected wisdom is from soldiers courage. They must be subject KUL of the philosopher king. They have not also married and private property. For public interest they are not allowed married or property. The lowest layer is at the bottom the soma or body pressure they are there because they are satisfaction of the needs. They are Avam. They are satisfied the functions. They always are temperance. They provide material subsistence. They are also subject of the Nous. They have no significant political responsibility. They can get married property but it must be temperance. He claim that an ideal state only be through harmony these classes injured by justice in term of virtues.  Only the Nous can insure the Justice. And though the Justice they regulate or establish the ideal society. This kind of Political state is not real is ideal he was know. This is envisage. He was also what happen in the real world.

 

When we think of Platos Laws and Statesman. Plato is also interested in what is this. From historical experience he also put idea what happen in actual world. We clearly know that he with is pupil political since that the first figures. In his ideal infinite what is the state attitude. How is it possible be a member of soldier. Is there any experience for put to people different class. Plato talk about thee fundamental stage in state first is the rulers in the second he put communal life be definitely make strong the relation between the rulers and soldiers must be.  Communal is that share everything. He always for the society as a hole printshop not only proper ship he reject owner women and children there is no room for family because of it. The responsibility of the children is common that all society. Women is biologically producer of children. Other ways this made may degeneration despotism.

Your behave to polish will be a risk. women are the common for hole society. in his time women is for property. His problem is with the family. The allegalice is a monopolize way so the part is not important than hole. As a result a children of the community will be common not as son of Kalinin . In the thigh stage among the ruler he is elected and he takes the power that integrate his wisdom and power. Political thought only with wisdom. Education has a critical stage in hi ideal stage. In order to mould the children by education monopolize one way education. Education means indoctrination that manipulating by just by one channel that will be one still people.  And he argued their no sexual division girl may be the rulers. Form arguing him hole political member is sacrifice. In the communal life all need provided by the producers. Family means also privacy because that it prevent be the best in political sphere. Plato thins that these are murder or provoke competition that will be an negative factor. If something wrong with child it we must kill dem. We must destroy disable ones it may sound inhuman but it needed.

Plato is his dialog when we think about his about ideal state ye it is true. so we know that the first historical experiences. And Mong theme which one is better and what are advantage and disadvantages of state.Degeneration to infer corruption because circle still continua. This is virtue circle the histıry. He sad historically the first community it was patriarchy for one time human beings that they develop political organization patriarchic norm. That the power of Father the rule of Father. This is actually Platos clarification only ones can govern. After that different tribes come together and they form first monarchy or aristocracy. These are the first form of the state. Arsitocracy is the best of the worst because they two of them rule favorite public goods. But as all the political system its open the degeneration it is denigrated into timocracy. When different tribes come together only one leader and a few people aristocracy. The seeking public goods is possible only thorough wisdoms. When wisdom disappear when it is corrupted transform into timocracy that honor and ambition always emphases in this kind of system. The relation between the rule and the guarding is getting weakining and weakining. They no longer core of governor exist. Because they are seeking their honor and ambitions in democracy. Because of ambitions private property is become popular in that. And the hominy is disappear in that. And in timocracy domestication and militarisim became popular. Timocracy in become oligarchy that govern of a few. In this corrupted and degenerated form.

It is plutocratic character. In that no honor no ambition no public goods but only wealth and property emphasizes. In this system the political power in haps of the rich. In any society rich people rich always minority. Accumulation of wealth they started legislating with their personal interest not public good that accumulation became problem with private it damage the perverted in the name of maximizing their accumulation. manin majority of the citizen became no equal education. Therefor plutocratic oligarchic as result of a rebellion.  And it degenerated democracy. According the his idea democracy is originated from the conflict of majority and minority. Poor win this war. In democracies there is an equality of opportunity and freedom. This community they lack high principles. They are populist citizen. The law is at the serves of the poplar of sentement message. It became organization that extremism. In democracy the populist give right the domination. The popular demand repressed. Finally the last degenerated form is tyranny that oppressed. A ruler have absolute power within any limit. The cruelty there is no rule. This is the worst form. In a millitarist way always oppression in their citizens. Bir şeyin aşırlığı onun biteceği. Anlamına gelir. This circle always that. İn order to escape you need to established Platos state.

In conclusion according to plato state provide justice. Justice is always emphasis by Plato. Ethical life only be with ethical virtues. Temperance courage and wisdom is important for justice. This kind of virtue only by the Philosopher King. The political power must be only that kings. From his point of view old the individual they must be together must be division of labor needed. And three classes must be applied that governor, guarder and producer. state as a body and the governor is must be Head in this body. Meritocratic community only do this way. Individual is nothing. All the member of society are expected to devote themselves for body or state. You have meaning wit only devote yourself. the good of all is the basic thing ion the state. In Platos community the state and society are together in a monolith way. In order to attain such an political community. He always emphasis collectivity.

MUHAMMED İSMAİL AKKAYA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Muhammed İsmail AKKAYA

IR (Researcher on Russia and Central Asia) muhammedismailakkaya@gmail.com

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