Medieval Age was called Dark Age that had split up periods as The Early Middle Ages (Dark Ages), the high middle Ages and The Late Middle Ages. At the same period, Islam and Christianity had shown up, and in these periods. Also, we clearly see that, some thinkers had shown up in İslamic and Christian World. Such as; Thomas Aquinas, Sean Augustine and Avecenna, Averroes etc. We will mention below intellectual activities and socio-economic conditions.
Religion of Romans is polytheistic and primary religion, and also romans saw no harm at to enter some religions of anyone. When romans won a war, it is conducted a ceremony for God, and romans people attended the ceremonies. Christianity had shown up in Middle East, and after a bit, it started to create danger for local religions because entering another religion of Christians are prohibition, and this prohibition got damage unity and collectivity of Roman Empire. Previously, people who accepting Christianity are arrested and they are agonized, but Christianity is continued to pervade by unheeded poor masses. Tribes from the North attacked the Roman Empire, and then Roman Empire had got a big downfall, and leader started to near with Christianity for a while, and after a bit, Christianity is announced as official religion by Constantine. Church developed and got strong, but some factions were jeopardizing unity and collectivity of church. Debates about nature of Jesus developed further, and opposing views had shown up because of this. In other words, Christianity started to split up.
Hellenistic science and philosophy had developed, and Christianity was not defeating on its own views. Christians tried to obliterate Greek civilization’s traces, and fathers of church went beyond of the scope of on its own, and they attacked the science and philosophy. They caused conflict between religion, science and philosophy. At the same time, they opened a hospital on the purpose of treatment, but scientific treatment is forgotten and religious treatment had started because church claims that, church that had a blessed power could enhance patients.
There are two important thinkers in this period: Thomas Aquinas and Sean Augustine. Firstly, let us start with Augustine. Church has an autonomous order like the state, and churches are guaranteed by God. Obeying the state is also obeying the God. St. Augustine said that, ıf people revolt the state or king, it will be sin because aboveground leaders are determinant leaders by God. When power of the state decreased, power of church increased. Although, a king is an unrighteous pagan, he entitled to obey, but eternal solvation and spiritual matter, it is domain the church.
Aristotle is appeared like saint of Christianity. Aristotle’s syllogism was considered the best, and in this time, two sources of knowledge showed up. One of them is truth (from revel), another one is faith or reason (from God). One of basis source of Scholastic Thought is Aristotle’s syllogism that influenced thinkers of İslamic World. This syllogism is not empirical that is mathematical, and it is closet the critical theory. Church had construed the syllogism within the religion.
Secondly, Thomas Aquinas who had built official discipline of Catholic Church, tried to ground blessed and unblessed knowledge. After that, he had mentioned as two sources of knowledge in Summa Contra Gentiles that is his famous book. These are faith and reason. Faith comes from blessed book (God) ,and reason comes from regulated and interpreted sense data (From Revel) . source of generated knowledge from all of them is God who do not contradict on its own ,so reasonable and truth should be related. In the other words, we can reconcile Aristotle and Plato’s philosophy with Christianity. Thus, scholastic thought had laid the foundations.
In consequence of conquests, Muslims who had encountered with Byzantium and Persians, benefitted from work of previous civilizations. Especially, they undertook activity of intensive translation in the Abbasids period, and went to attack about science and philosophy. Muslims tried to understand and then to develop existent knowledge.
When Islamic religious showed up, people came across with developed scientific activity in Arabian Penunsula, but neighboring countries (India in East, Alexandria in West), there were some developed scientific activities. Muslims influenced from culture in East firstly. We clearly see that, traces of Indian civilization had been run across in Harezmi and Biruni’s works.
Influence of West was more lately, but it had been more intensive. Since it was established Alexandria that had been culture center, had protected its feature in İslamic World. Besides, there were some thinkers and scientists who had escaped Byzantium, and took refuge to Persia. They, who created culture centers, had been important role at to realize the first scientific activity.
Mohammed’s doctrine had developed the İslamic World. ‘Radical changes’ is Mohammed’s doctrine that brightens people. Islam is religion of Hanafi. Controlling of old men is ruler in the pagan’s societies. They rejected difference of racism and gender, and have equitable understanding. While Prophet is alive, he was establishing state. Philosophy was resolved tool to answer some question. Debates between religion-philosophy and reason-faith were being. Sharia was saying something, and customary law was saying another thing. A new religion showed up, and it is not said to everybody will be Muslim, because stationary order and habit should had been left, there was still slavery. Stationary order was resisting new things as cultural. There were two choose: conviction and slaughter. While Ottoman Empire expands towards East, it came across with Byzantium and Persians. Anatolia was center of Byzantium, and when Ottoman Empire came across with Byzantium, there were two chose (conviction or slaughter). Justification of new religion is necessary at the conviction process. They consulted philosophy in the rational justifications. As long as İslam expand towards the North, it gets a grip of roads of silk and spice. If there is a trade, it will be different accelerations, so civilization term shows up, and Islamism was getting out, too. Inconsistent feudalism gave place to consistent new organizations. If a religion does not have political permanence, there were not scientific intellectual activities. Islam is suitable ground for political permanence.
Trade roads were providing to increase money, welfare and different cultural objects. If a country does not have acceleration, there would not be civilization, too. There was no consistent church understanding in İslamic Worlds. At the same period, sects are started to show up, and the most important problem was free will because every sect suggest an idea for development of on their own thought.
Some works of Hellenistic period are translated Arabic. Scholastic Period had learnt Aristotle and Plato from these Arabic works. There are some important thinkers in Islamic World.
Farabi; he is called Abunnasir. Medinetü’l Fazıla is his most important work, and he was educated Christian logicians. He was influenced by Aristotle and Plato’s ideal state. Farabi has two civitas: 1) city of virtue 2) city of immortality
İbn Sina: He was called Avicenna. He is the famous about medicine, and his name is given some hospital in Turkey. His most important work is Kanun Fit-Tıb. He had a thought like the base of governmental power.
İbn Tufeyl: He is the first style Robinsonate. He questioned social life. His most important work is Critical Social Theory. He had played a big role in the resuscitation of Aristotle’s thoughts.
İbn Rhusd: He is known Averroes. At the same time, Gazali had written Incoherence of the Philosophers, and Rhusd had written Incoherence of the Incoherence against Gazali. Just like Thomas Aquinas, according to Rhusd, source of knowledge has two choose that are reason and truth, and he said that, they are an equal value in philosophy. It is not supremacy in the absolute truth, and they do not engage each other. Truth is higher than faith/reason in the interpretation. Having faith/reason means to be reasonable person. Gazali had said the exact opposite.
Finally, Christianity and Islamism had shown up in Medieval Age. Appearing religious in Middle East shows to develop for a while, and they started to get out fast. Translation of some thinkers brightens people, and terms of reason and truth are used on their own works. At the same time, source of knowledge is founded by Islamic and Christian thinkers. Translations and works of thinkers are still important nowadays because their works direct the past and future.