CHINA: DYNASTIES, POLITICAL PROCESSES, EAST TURKESTAN AND TIBET

0

INTRODUCTION

China is a country which there is twenty nine countries around it and has eighteen thousand maritime boundaries and twenty two thousand land borders. At historical process, its land border was changed by many dynasties. Because China were administered about twenty dynasties.

China obtained deep cultural, political and philosophical acquisitions with these dynasties. Besides many bloody wars was lived through among dynasties. Apart from China was governed by weak and short dated empires; it was also administered by powerful and long date empires. There are five important empires namely Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, and Qing Dynasty.

However, China continued one`s existence with communist regime after dynastic cycle. At transition period, from emperorship to communist regime, many conflicts and bloody struggles took place in China. Firstly, against Manchu was struggled under the leadership of Sun Yet Sen in 1911. From 1927 to 1949 a civil war occurred between China Communist Party and National Party of China (Guomindang). In addition China Japan war took place between 1937 1945.

At the end of these struggle, communist party gained a big victory against Nationalist and People Republic of China founded under leadership of Mao Zedong in 1949. He was both party leader and head of the state. Throughout his leadership bloody revolutions and human rights violations occurred. He is murderer and dictator leader.

After death of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping superseded his. He is vital important leader which makes economic reforms and opened the world to China. Beside he was arbiter upon government, communist party and bureaucracy. Although all these affirmative policies, also throughout his leadership, human rights violations and bloody cases accursed like Tiananmen Square protests.

Throughout these historical processes, different nations were persecuted by China in Asia. East Turkestan and Tibet have been having a problem for long years. China has been occupying both East Turkestan and Tibet lands. Specifically in East Turkestan, many people have been die and migrating different countries.

This study tries to examine China with comparing as historically, politically and in terms of its outlook on sovereignty rights for its neighbor. In this context there is title. First, Dynastic Cycle in China, I will try to examine dynasties specifically five important dynasties. Second, Conflict between Nationalist-Communist and People Republic of China, in this section process that is collapse of empire was studied. Third section is A New Manner: Deng Xiaoping. In last part, Nations which was violated human right and sovereignty rights was discussed.

1) DYNASTIC CYCLE IN CHINA

Firstly I want to examine China historically. Because, history is a record and loadstar. We can understand a cultures, lifestyle, political system and basic components of alteration of societies, if we can properly read history. When viewed from this aspect, question of Why were founded communist system upon farmers? Where is China taking inspiration today within growing processes? and Who did appurtenant the lands which have been occupying by China in East Turkestan and Tibet? can be answered.

We said that there are many dynasties in China but some dynasties are important such as Han Dynasty (202-AD220). It ruled throughout 400 years. It is contemporaneous with Roman period (Keay, 2011). China’s fundamental culture comprised and Buddhism speeded all China in this period. Tang Dynasty( AD 218-907 ) another important dynasty for China empire because it were a period which is rising cycle politically and economically. However, this dynasty overcome Gokturk state and many Turkish general took office in China army. On the other hand, first Muslims came in this period to China under leadership of Sad bin Ebi Vakka. It is contemporaneous with first Islamic state (Keay, 2011). Ming Dynasty inflicted defeat the Mongols between 1364-1644 and became regional power. Navigation were improved and they came into contact with external world. Chinese navigator Zheng He lived this era and he navigated seven times Indian Ocean. In this era, Japan, Spain, and Holland attacked to China and they established industrial ports. It is contemporaneous with Ottoman Empire. Two empire came into diplomatic contact. Qing Dynasty is last dynasty. Central authority strengthened by Qing Dynasty. They fight with Holland and retrieve to Taiwan. In 1840 first Opium War took place with United Kingdom and were concluded by the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842. Feudal system ended after collapse of Qing Dynasty.

China puts its self in the center of world throughout dynastic cycle and they held the power long time in Asia. They looked up its self-other civilizations.

2) CONFLİCT BETWEEN NATIONALİST-COMMUNIST AND PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA

At the end of the Qing Dynasty, China was surrounded by western power and Japans. Japan attacks were forgotten by Chinese until today. With these events all institutions of China declined and people who had education at Europa began to want reforms. These people struggled under leadership of Sun Yet Sen with Manchu. These processes Nationalist and Communist struggled against Manchu and Japan until civil war.

National party were founded by Sun Yet Sen. He took education U.S. and had an intellectual personality. However they was supported by U.S. and had huge amount of gun and many. Until 1921 they struggled same side with Communist. After 1927 Jieng Jienghi ( Chan Kai-Shek) who is a leader after Sun Yet Sen perceived as a threat and from 1927 to 1949 a civil war occurred in China. In addition in 1937 Japan attacks started. But Mao who is leader of Chines communist organized and educated villagers. On the other hand nationalist lost powers struggled with Japan. In 1949 these problems which is belongings to  Nationalist and opportunities won a victory to Mao. He founded People Republic of China.

Mao Zedong administered China until 1976. He were both party and head of the state. He established strong authority and constraint upon his society. In this process there is just one state which is supporting to China; Soviet Union. However Stalin belittled always Mao Zedong and Chines. He never look like a real communist. According to Stalin they are villagers. China went to Korean war in process of Mao. In addition Mao started to Cultural Revolution in 1966. He aimed a soul for new revolution. Because he did not want Soviet model about communism. This revolution continued to death of Mao after Mao Deng Xiaoping took command.

3) A NEW MANNER; DENG XİAOPİNG

After death of Mao Zedong, Hua Guofeng took control but Deng Xiaoping were more powerful than him in both government and party. When he even went to U.S., he were met as a heat of people republic of china by the president. In 1978 Deng took control both government and party.

He is an important person for China. He was lead of economic opening and modernization. Especially he constructed four modernizations; education, industry, agriculture and national security. Between 1978-1979 years he paid an official visit to five different countries and visited factories and center of technology for China. Because, he wanted China to be powerful. These attempts attracted many foreign investments. However he made long rage plan for economy and industry.

Apart from these positive developments, Tiananmen Square protests tarnished to Deng Xiaoping’s image. Protesters consist of workers, university students, and highbrows. Protesters claim that there is politic corruption in government and unemployment in society because of these opening policies. China government suppressed to use force the uprising. Many people died and were arrested. All these events got reaction in international press.

4) OPPRESSED SOCİETY IN CHINA: EAST TURKISTAN AND TIBET

East Turkistan has 19.25 million populations. They embraced Islam in 1300s. Today china wants to change demographic structure of the area. Therefor it is inhabiting Han chines. First occupation wave started in 1755. Others contained from 1844 to 1944. In 1955 whole East Turkistan was occupied and until 1953 at least 100.000 people was died.

East Turkistan is important for China at two points. First China has too much unemployed people. On the other hand ıt try to Sinicize the area. Both it will employed the unemployed people and it will Sinicize the area. Second China have huge industry and depend oil until 1990s. Therefor it want to use East Turkistan oil. In addition nine eleven attacks affected East Turkistan. U.S. asserted East Turkistan to be related with El Kaide and U.S. added terrorist list East Turkistan Islamic Movement. Oppressions was increased by China after this.

However, in history, Ottoman empire contacted with the area in Kashgar Dynasty era in 1865. Seyyid Yakup Han Töre came Istanbul as ambassador. They wanted help for struggling China. Abdulaziz han dispatched 2000 rifles and 6 artilleries. Yakup bey who is Han of Kashgar Dynasty was readed khutbah in behalf of Abdulaziz Han. In 1873 China started to occupy but because of Ottoman-Russia war, Ottoman did not help it.

Another society is Tibet. Tibet autonomous region is the biggest region in People Republic of China after East Turkistan autonomous region. It have rich mining sites; gold deposit, copper deposit and uranium deposits. There are important water resources.

Until 1951 Tibet was ruled by linguistic hierarchy. Dalai Lama is a leader both religious and secular. After 1951, Tibet participated to China and China forced some reforms. When these reforms started to change social structures, uprising started in 1959. U.S. supported the uprising and trained many guerilla. On the other hand President Nixon chanced U.S. foreign policy. He made corporation with China against Soviet Union and paid a formal visit to China. U.S.’s support diminished to Tibet and Dali Lama.

 

Bibliography

(2016, May). Türk Çin Dostluk Vakfı: http://www.turkcindostlukvakfı.org.tr adresinden alınmıştır

Fairbank, J. K. (2006). China A New History. England: Harvard Universty Press.

Fidan, G. (2008, September 21). Pekin’in Yüksek Rakımlı Sorunu: Tibet. 21. Yüzyıl, s. 79-86.

Fidan, G. (2011). Ming Tarih Kayıtlarına Göre 16. Yüzyılda Osmanlı İmparatorluğu- Ming Çin’i İlişkileri. Türkiye Araştırmaları Dergisi, 275-287.

Gömenç, S. (tarih yok). Doğu Türkistan’da Yakup Han Dönemi ve Osmanlı Devleti İle İlişkileri.

Keay, J. (2011). Çin Tarihi. Istanbul: Inkılap Yayınları.

Roskin, M. (2013). Cagdas Devlet Sistemleri Siyaset, Cografya, Kultur. Ankara: Adres Yayinlari.

Ross, R. S. (1989). From Biao To Deng Xiaoping: Elite Instability and China’s U.S. Policy. The China Quarterly, 265-299.

Şen, F. (2009). Çin’in Doğu Türkistan Sorunu Dünü Bugünü Geleceği. Ortadoğu Analiz, 124-134.

 

 

About Author

Mehmet Fatih ARGIN

Leave A Reply