In consequence of conquests, Muslims who had encountered with Byzantium and Persians, benefitted from work of previous civilizations. Especially, they undertook activity of intensive translation in the Abbasids period, and went to attack about science and philosophy. Muslims tried to understand and then to develop existent knowledge.
When Islamic religious showed up, people came across with developed scientific activity in Arabian Penunsula, but neighboring countries (India in East, Alexandria in West), there were some developed scientific activities. Muslims influenced from culture in East firstly. We clearly see that, traces of Indian civilization had been run across in Harezmi and Biruni’s works.
Influence of West was more lately, but it had been more intensive. Since it was established Alexandria that had been culture center, had protected its feature in İslamic World. Besides, there were some thinkers and scientists who had escaped Byzantium, and took refuge to Persia. They, who created culture centers, had been important role at to realize the first scientific activity.
Mohammed’s doctrine had developed the İslamic World. ‘Radical changes’ is Mohammed’s doctrine that brightens people. Islam is religion of Hanafi. Controlling of old men is ruler in the pagan’s societies. They rejected difference of racism and gender, and have equitable understanding. While Prophet is alive, he was establishing state. Philosophy was resolved tool to answer some question. Debates between religion-philosophy and reason-faith were being. Sharia was saying something, and customary law was saying another thing. A new religion showed up, and it is not said to everybody will be Muslim, because stationary order and habit should had been left, there was still slavery. Stationary order was resisting new things as cultural. There were two choose: conviction and slaughter. While Ottoman Empire expands towards East, it came across with Byzantium and Persians. Anatolia was center of Byzantium, and when Ottoman Empire came across with Byzantium, there were two chose (conviction or slaughter). Justification of new religion is necessary at the conviction process. They consulted philosophy in the rational justifications. As long as İslam expand towards the North, it gets a grip of roads of silk and spice. If there is a trade, it will be different accelerations, so civilization term shows up, and Islamism was getting out, too. Inconsistent feudalism gave place to consistent new organizations. If a religion does not have political permanence, there were not scientific intellectual activities. Islam is suitable ground for political permanence.
Trade roads were providing to increase money, welfare and different cultural objects. If a country does not have acceleration, there would not be civilization, too. There was no consistent church understanding in İslamic World. At the same period, sects are started to show up, and the most important problem was free will because every sect suggest an idea for development of on their own thought.
Some works of Hellenistic period are translated Arabic. Scholastic Period had learnt Aristotle and Plato from these Arabic works. There are some important thinkers in Islamic World.
Farabi; he is called Abunnasir. Medinetü’l Fazıla is his most important work, and he was educated Christian logicians. He was influenced by Aristotle and Plato’s ideal state. Farabi has two civitas: 1) city of virtue 2) city of immortality
İbn Sina: He was called Avicenna. He is the famous about medicine, and his name is given some hospital in Turkey. His most important work is Kanun Fit-Tıb. He had a thought like the base of governmental power.
İbn Tufeyl: He is the first style Robinsonate. He questioned social life. His most important work is Critical Social Theory. He had played a big role in the resuscitation of Aristotle’s thoughts.
İbn Rhusd: He is known Averroes. At the same time, Gazali had written Incoherence of the Philosophers, and Rhusd had written Incoherence of the Incoherence against Gazali. Just like Thomas Aquinas, according to Rhusd, source of knowledge has two choose that are reason and truth, and he said that, they are an equal value in philosophy. It is not supremacy in the absolute truth, and they do not engage each other. Truth is higher than faith/reason in the interpretation. Having faith/reason means to be reasonable person. Gazali had said the exact opposite.
YUSUF TANER KILAVUZ